Program for the Fall 1999 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF Biology

Empirical Projects

Baker, Robert, Chandler, Michelle, Eckdahl, Todd. Mitochondrial RFLP Analysis of Montana Sculpins.
The genus includes several species of sculpins. The shorthead sculpin, , was recognized as a distinct species in 1963 and bears close resemblance to the mottled sculpin, . On the basis of allozyme analysis, it has been proposed that resides in a watershed in northern Montana, Tepee Creek of the Flathead River, beyond what is considered the present range of the fish. In the current study, five populations were analyzed, originating from Clearwater River, Tepee Creek, Yellowstone River, and Missouri River at Dearborn and at Craig. An outgroup of a known species, the slimy sculpin , , collected from Grant Creek was also analyzed. DNA was isolated and mitochondrial DNA sequences were amplified using PCR. Restriction enzyme digestions using sixteen enzymes were performed on the resulting PCR product. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were subsequently analyzed and the results compiled to produce a table of haplotypes and estimated phylogenetic trees. Analysis of the trees showed the slimy sculpin to be a separate clade but did not support the existence of in the Montana watersheds studied. The few exceptions observed were attributed to individual genetic variation. Future analysis includes collecting samples from locations in which is known to exist and from watersheds where its presence is questionable. DNA sequencing of , , and will also be performed in order to better convert RFLP data into restriction site data.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brewer, Shannon and Rushin, John. Post Burn Survey of Vaccinium arboreum, V. stamineum, and V. vacillans at Stegall Mountain Natural Area, Missouri .
This study compares frequency and commonness values of three species of native Vaccinium in the Stegall Mountain Natural Area of Shannon and Carter counties before and after two different burn treatments. Sampling was conducted within 78 permanent square meter plots located 100 feet apart along three different transects (There were 26 sampling plots per transect). The study area was burned in the spring of 1994 and again in the spring of 1999. Plant surveys were conducted in July/August of 1994 and in July/August of 1999. Responses of these three Vaccinium species to the two burn treatments were found to be quite variable with V. arboreum and V. stamineum showing overall increases in frequency and commonness after the treatments and V. vaccinium showing overall decreases in frequency and commonness.
Faculty Sponsor:
Chandler, Michelle L., Anderson, John A., and Eckdahl, Todd T.. In vitro Evolution of Antitumor Drug Binding Sites in DNA.
The actions of antitumor drugs have been shown to involve binding to the minor groove of DNA and unbending of the unusual structure of bent DNA. However, the specific sequences of DNA to which the drugs bind have not been identified. A protocol was developed in which test tube evolution was used to select those DNA sequences that best bind the antitumor drugs. Synthetic oligonucleotides were created and placed in solution with the antitumor drugs DAPI and Hoescht. Restriction enzyme digestion was used as the negative artificial selection for sequences that cannot bind the drugs. PCR amplification yielded the next generation of molecules. Enhanced fluorescence was used after the procedure as a phenotype for the presence of the sequences which bound the antitumor drugs. Selected sequences will be analyzed using DNA sequencing to determine the optimal binding site of the antitumor drugs studied. These sequences will be used in searches of the human genome in order to learn about the specific regulatory elements for gene expression and DNA replication that they affect in tumor cells.
Faculty Sponsor:
DeBarthe, Gina M., Cary D. Chevalier, Eugene Vale, and Jennifer Woods.. Biodiversity of restored glades compared to non-restored glades..
Glades are a specialized xeric habitat that normally occur on the southwest slope of Missouri`s predominately oak-hickory forests. Historically glades were exposed to periodic burns which cleared excessive woody encroachment. Since fires have been repressed woody encroachment has displaced many species that normally characterize glades. This has been especially problematic with eastern red cedars (Juniperus virginiana). Various agencies in Missouri have begun to restore glades by removing eastern red cedars and then following up with prescribed burns to restore glades. The purpose of this study was to assess the biodiversity of restored glades compared to non-restored glades. Linear transects (100 m in length) were set up on three glades. Glade 1 and 2 had previously been managed with fire and the removal of woody vegetation. Glade 3 had never been actively managed and was considered the control. Twenty quadrants were placed at randomly-assigned distances along each transect. We calculated average % cover for 1) each species/glade, and 2) each glade. We then calculated Simpson and Shannon species diversity indices. For Glade 1 Simpson and Shannon diversity indices and % cover were 85.3, 4.1, and 10.3, respectively. For Glade 3, these values were 49.1, 1.7, and 8.4, respectively. For glade 2, only % cover was available (11.02). We found no significant differences in % cover across glades (P = 0.515). Glade 1 had higher Simpson and Shannon species diversity indices than glade 3 (P < 0.05). At this stage of glade management, our data suggest that the restoration management strategies being applied to glade 1 are significantly increasing species diversity compared to the unmanaged glade 3.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lingenfelter, Joy K., Heidie A. Zeigler, and Cary D. Chevalier.. Seasonal densite selection by Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginianus) in an urban setting of northwest Missouri..
Our goal was to test the prediction that opossums do not evaluate potential densites prior to selecting one for the day. Our hypothesis: diurnal densites chosen by opossums do not differ in their multivariate characteristics from immediately-available, randomly-selected alternative satellite sites. We captured opossums with wire box traps in the MWSC Biological Conservation Area, fitted them with radio transmitters then released them at site of capture. We then located each opossum daily in their den using telemetry receivers. The location of densite was recorded and plotted on a topographical map using Universal Transverse Mercator system (UTM) coordinates. At each densite, two alternate satellite sites were each chosen at a randomly-selected distance (not to exceed 20 m) along a randomly-selected compass azimuth (from 1 - 360 degrees). Seventeen physical characteristics of the den itself or the immediate surrounding topography/habitat were quantified for each den and each alternate satellite site. Stepwise discriminant function analysis was used to build a model of opossum densite characteristics using the data from the opossum-chosen dens and one of the two satellite sites. Which satellite site was paired with its opossum den was determined through random selection using a random numbers table. The model was then used to evaluate the remaining satellite sites to test model accuracy and to identify which of the 17 variables evaluated are most important to opossums in evaluating densites. Our hypothesis that diurnal densites chosen by opossums do not differ in their multivariate characteristics from immediately-available, randomly-selected alternative satellite sites was falsified. All models comparing dens to non-dens significantly discriminated between opossum-chosen dens and alternative sites regardless of season (P < 0.001. This held whether a full 17-variable model was used or a reduced-variable model was used Further, dens chosen by opossums during summer were significantly different in their multivariate characteristics than winter opossum dens (P < 0.001). During winter the most important characteristics were den type and % canopy cover while during summer densites were predominantly characterized by den type, % canopy cover, den aspect, ground slope, and mean stem density. The most important characteristics differentiating winter dens from summer dens were den type, % dead and down material, mean DBH, % ground cover, and mean stem density. The models were very efficient at correctly classifying an opossum den from a non-opossum den. The reduced variable models had overall efficiencies of 88% and 96% for correctly classifying actual opossum densites in winter and summer, respectively. As components of habitat, densites are significantly different from the rest of the habitat landscape, from the viewpoint of an opossum, and are therefore, potential limiting resources in defining opossum home range geometry and opossum population densities. Further, this study indicates that opossums in this area use different kinds of dens during winter than they do during summer.
Faculty Sponsor:
Nelson, Lizzie, Barb Banbury, Roland Sosa, Robert Powell. Natural History of Leiocephalus semilineatus from Hispaniola.
We examined diet, habitat use, and behavior (focal animal observations, escape behavior, and activity period) of Leiocephalus semilineatus from two sites in the Republica Dominicana. Leiocephalus semilineatus is found in dry scrub forest with the larger L. schreibersii and Ameiva lineolata, an actively foraging teiid of apporximately the same size. Leiocephalus semilineatus spent most of the time motionless followed by interacting, moving, and feeding. Lizards were active from 0730 to sundown. Mean cloacal temperature did not differ between species. Reproductive condition of collected specimens was examined and no correlation was found between snout-vent length and egg, follicle, or testis size. Leiocephalus schreibersii and L. semilineatus from the Puerto Alejandro site exhibited sexual size dimorphism, which is positively correlated with SVL. Diets included primarily invertebrate material and did not differ significantly between the three species.
Faculty Sponsor:
Polston, Carolyn. Summer internship as an integration of classroom and workplace experiences: My internship at Squaw Creek NWR.
This summer I did my internship at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in the area of natural interpretation and management. I was involved in many activities including several natural resource surveys. I performed a frog survey to check for frog deformalities such as missing legs or extra legs. I helped with a wood duck nest box survey whereby we counted the eggshell membranes indicating successful hatches and the infertile eggs (which indicated unsuccessful hatches). I participated in waterfowl and wetland bird nest surveys using an air boat. I was also involved in helping design environmental education packets for teachers utilizing resources on the Squaw Creek NWR. The internship program provide me with an opportunity to work with professionals in the fields of my interest and to apply what I learn in class in "real-world" work environments. I believe the internship model as I experienced it to be an invaluable addition to my educational opportunities, and one of the strengths of the Conservation/Wildlife Emphasis Area of the Biology Degree Program here at MWSC.
Faculty Sponsor:
Zeigler, Heidie A., Joy K. Lingenfelter, and Cary D. Chevalier. Thermoregulatory consequences of winter densite selection by male Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in an urban environment in northwest Missouri..
Our goal was to describe the thermoregulatory characteristics of opossum dens and to quantify operative temperature (Te) profiles of these dens. We captured male opossums with wire box traps in the MWSC Biological Conservation Area, fitted them with radio transmitters then released them at site of capture. We then located each opossum daily in their den using telemetry receivers. Densite locations were recorded and plotted on a topographical map using Universal Transverse Mercator system (UTM) coordinates. Thermal mounts were made from copper wire frames in the shape of opossums encased in opossum hides. An array of thermocouples were placed throughout the mount frames. These thermal mannequins were used to measure the Operative Temperature (Te; integrated thermal exchange between the opossum and its environment across its pelage) within and outside of each den environment. The following characteristics were measured inside and outside the den: air and ground temperature, operative temperature, wind speed, and water vapor pressure. Data was collected every 15 minutes from 7 am to 7 pm. Thermal, operative temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure profiles were plotted and averages calculated at various times during the day across dens. These values inside dens were compared to values recorded simultaneously outside dens.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF CS/Math/Physics

Empirical Projects

Roma, Joseph C. Real Roots of Cubic Polynomials.
In the study of algebra, we often want to know the nature of the roots of polynomial functions (whether or not the roots are real). It is well known in college algebra that the quadratic formula gives a way to determine the nature of the roots for quadratic polynomials. In this project, we derived a way to determine the nature of the roots for cubic polynomials. Indeed, we derived an explicit formula, in terms of the coefficients, that determines the nature of the roots. We also used this formula to gain some insight into the nature of the roots of higher degree polynomials.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Department of Communications, Theatre, and Humanit

Historical Papers

Murray, Stacey Anne. Shaman/Actor & Ritual/Drama: Paradigms for Drama Therapy.
Drama therapy is defined as the systematic and intentional use of drama/theatre processes to achieve psychological growth and change. It is a new psychotherapy that utilizes many dramatic elements, such as scenework, soliloquy, puppetry and mask. It is important to look at the dramatic ritual to understand the purposes of these ‘theatre processes.’ It is here that the healing aspects can be evaluated. Specifically the focus will be on the shaman, and his essential theatrical elements within the healing aspect. Therefore, it is the relation between dramatic ritual and drama therapy that leads to a more precise relation between the shaman and the actor. By examining the use of theatre processes of the shaman, one can infer the healing aspects that are parallel to the world of drama therapists.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Department of Psychology

Historical Papers

Murray, Stacey Anne. Theatre is Therapy: An Analysis of Paradigm Shifts and the Effects of Drama Therapy as an Independent Philosophy.
Drama therapy is defined as the systematic and intentional use of drama/theatre processes to achieve psychological growth and change. Drama therapy cannot be traced to a single ‘father.’ It is a unique therapeutic method that has benefited from a blending of many different sources. Its background is multidisciplinary, spanning over thousands of centuries. This is a critical historical analysis of how drama therapy has matured into an independent philosophy. Projections of the status for drama therapy in the future are tentatively favorable, as much of the field`s success relies on the continuing efforts on individuals to explore research.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Education

Empirical Projects

Godfrey, Lori A. and Hanway, Tara M.. The Functional Role of Self-Declatory Speech on Corresponding Academic and Social Behaviors.
We investigated the function of self-declatory speech on corresponding academic and social behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Four students participated in this single subject design study. We evaluated the effects of the students` verbal statements about the speed and accuracy of his or her academic performances on assigned 10-minute math tasks. The data reported consists of the following dependent variables: rate of correct and incorrect responses, academic engagements/non-engagements, students` self-directed speech, correspondence between the subjects` statements and performances, and teacher behavior for script following. The results show a mean gain across all phases of treatment, which provide indications that the use of self-declatory speech improves academic performance.
Faculty Sponsor:
Stephens, Larissa. A Single Subject Applied Behavior Analysis and Intervention.
The research I have conducted is a single subject design applied behavior analysis. I worked with a four year old child who has ADHD. I chose one negative behavior as the focus of my research and intervention efforts. To operationally define his behavior: the child makes contact with other children in a day care setting by moving his hand in a closed fist shape upon them, inflicting pain. The target behavior I attempted to modify for this project was an increase in his interactions with peers without the use of hitting. The desired outcome of this project was for the child to learn to use his words while interacting with his peers, rather than hitting them. I collected and measured both baseline and intervention data during the course of this project. I have also found and documented several articles which support my attempt at correcting this behavior.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Anderson, Tamara. Effects of Imagery and Brief Lamaze Training on Pain Tolerance in a Cold Pressor Test.
This experiment compared if imagery and brief Lamaze training had an effect on pain tolerance in a cold pressor test. College students were administered a cold pressor test after viewing a three minute Lamaze technique clip, or listening to a relaxation music tape or receiving no treatment. All participant times were measured and recorded and will be analyzed using a one way ANOVA to determine if there is any significant differences.
Faculty Sponsor:
Baker, Brooklin. Cognitive Distortions Among Juvenile Delinquents and Non-Delinquents.
Cognitive distortions between juvenile delinquents and non-delinquents were examined in addition to their individual self-esteem. There will be four individual t-tests performed and the results will be correlated. It is hypothesized that juvenile delnquents will use more cognitive distortions and have an inflated overall self-esteem when compared to juvenile non-delinquents.
Faculty Sponsor:
Bottorff, Amy. Cesare Lombroso`s Criminal Typing.
Criminals have and always will be a part of our society. Many people in history, were interested in these people and their deviant behaviors. A key figure in this area of study was Cesare Lombroso. Cesare Lombroso established a system for distinguishing criminals by their appearance compared to the appearance of the average person. This has had an impact on the study of criminals today by focusing on the recent discovery of the "criminal gene."
Faculty Sponsor:
Burnsides, Shannon. Taking a Look at Gender Competition: A Test Between Sexes.
Competition happens between individuals every day. Which gender you are may make a difference in how much you compete and how you compete. This study looks not at only which gender competes more, but if people compete more within their gender or outside it. It is expected that Men compete more than women, as history would suggest, but that there is no significance to who they compete more against. To test the hypothesis subjects were asked to put their hand in ice cold water. Subjects were paired with either their same gender or opposite gender. It was left up to the subjects whether or not the pairing would arouse competitiveness in them. The amount of time the subjects left their hand in the ice water was the definition used to measure the amount of competition felt. A one way ANOVA was conducted to see if one gender competes more and who they compete more against. It is expected that the hypothesis is right, males compete more but there is no significance to whom they compete more against.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF psychology

Empirical Projects

Thompson, Jack, W.. Gender differences in the ability to remember truths and lies.
The nature of this research is three fold. First, the study looks at gender differences. In this case the differences are in gender and memory by testing the ability to remember in a post-information-acquisition mode. Second, clustering of memory items in a gender specific schema is a noted effect of these types of tasks and will be regarded. Finally, truth and lies are addressed as memory items. Looking specifically at the gender differences in the ability to remember truths and lies with out prior knowledge of the memory task at hand.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Domalewski, Sandra. Rape Myth Acceptance: Changing Attitudes through the use Movie Clips..
The purpose of this study is to find if there is a relationship between watching movie scenes starring Jodie Foster and an individual`s rape myth acceptance. Subjects watch one of the three following movies. Group one watch a rape scene from The Accused. Group two watched a non-sexual court scene from Contact. Group three watch an adult consensual sex scene from Summersby. Subjects before and after rape myth acceptance will be compared.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hernandez, Jennifer. Conformity and Self Esteem: Possible Correlation?.
The purpose of this study is to see if there is a negative correlation between self-esteem and conformity. Several students at Missouri Western State College were asked to fill out the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and those scores were compared with their scores on a scale of conformity to see if a correlation existed.
Faculty Sponsor:
Johnson, Heather. The Frequency of Different Types of Discomfort and the Types of Medication Used.
There are many different types of pain and discomfort that an individual experiences from day to day and they have many ways to treat it. This experiment was aimed to look at specific types of pain and discomfort, the frequency at which they are experienced and the different types of treatment an individual chooses to use. The data was collected by distributing a survey to general psychology students at MWSC. I expect that over-the-counter medications will be the most frequently used treatment. As to the frequency of the pain and discomfort, the more frequently they experience it, the more likely they are to use prescription medications.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF psychology

Empirical Projects

Mario, Mario K.. Preeventing Toddler Self Wetting` A Study of Three Conditions.
This study will attempt to find the most effective means of reducing the incidence of self wetting by use of one of three conditions; tangible reward, emotional reward or threat. A Subject will be treated to each condition for ten days, the number of self wetting incidence will be recorded and using a one way ANOVA, those results will be compared with answers from surveys distributed at local day care centers asking parents if they use or have used any of the three conditions and if so how effective they were for them.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Leflet, Breann. Lunar Phase Effect on Criminal Activity and Crisis Calls: Does a Correlation Exist?.
Despite the research that repeatedly denies the validity of the effect of lunar phase changes on human behavior, folklore and superstition continue to prevail and perpetuate the myth. The purpose of this study will be to determine if there is a correlation between criminal activity and crisis calls and the corresponding lunar phase.
Faculty Sponsor:
McCready, Christine. Seat Belt Use and Other Safety Questions Answered.
This experiment was done to see if there is a correlation between seat belt use and speeding and also locking vehicle doors. A paper and pencil survey was given to 40 people, ranging in ages from 18 to 50. The survey asked about their seat belt use and other safety precautions they take when in a vehicle. A correlation will be done to see if there is any relationship between the three.
Faculty Sponsor:
Owen, Kate. Incidental Memory for Informational and Emotional Prose as a Function of Mode of Presentation and Chronological Age.
Age differences in relation to informational and emotional perception will be examined in young, middle, and old aged individuals. Using an incidental memory paradigm, subjects will read a prose passage from a popular novel containing an equivalent amount of emotional and informational text. The passage will be presented in a subjective or objective mode. Subjects will be asked to recall information from the passage. The data will then be transcribed and classified as emotional or informational. Research has shown that younger adults are informationally bound and older adults are emotionally bound. The question this study will address is does the results from previous research hold when mode of presentation of material is presented in a subjective or first person manner compared to an objective or third person mode. An additional concern is whether there is a tendency to switch from the informational to the emotional mode of recall as a function of lifespan attainment, i.e., young, middle, or old age.
Faculty Sponsor:
Ritter, Michael. Hand Temperature, Test Anxiety, and Test Performance: A Correlational Study..
It is a known fact that anxiety affects performance. From kindergarten through graduate school, students will be evaluated by their ability to perform well on course examinations and standardized tests. With so much emphasis being placed on test performance, many practitioners and theorists have focused much of their attention on understanding and treating test anxiety.The purpose of this research is to investigate possible physiological components of test anxiety. This research is the preliminary first step in this investigative process. Missouri Western State College students were tested and measured on the following variables: Pre-test Hand Temperature, Test Anxiety, Test Performance, and Post-test Hand Temperature. The hypothesis is that a significant correlation between these variables may suggest a physiological component to test anxiety.A Pearson correlation will be calculated to determine if any of the variable correlations are statistically significant.
Faculty Sponsor:
Rodriguez, Jason. The Melancholy of Music.
The purpose of my study is to investigate the effects of music on the perception of art. I will measure these effects by recording the results of a questionnaire, after the viewing of a painting in one of three musical conditions. I plan to find that depressing-type music will negatively affect the perception of an abstract painting.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF psychology

Historical Papers

Buckler, Calle. Evolution of mental health care.
Throughout history the treatment of the mentally ill has come a long way. In the past, patients were treated with great disrespect. This paper discusses issues concerning treatment and treatment devices the are no longer ethically acceptable. It also examines the beliefs that were once held about mental illness. With the advocacy for better treatment more humane treatment procedures were developed. The evolution of mental health care has pushed for moral treatment of the mentally ill. Current methods of treatment and future predictions for the direction of treatment of mental illness is explored.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Historical Papers

Caudle, Audrey. Prominent Women in Developmental Psychology.
This paper will discuss several women who have had a significant impact on Developmental Psychology in the twentieth century. The historical and social events that have helped to influence the career development of these women will be explored. The barriers these women have faced to achieve recognition in their field will also be discussed.
Faculty Sponsor:
Clayton, Rhonda. Biofeedback.
Biofeedback Biofeedback, an alternative to be used with or without traditional medicine, began in the late 1960`s. Increasingly more interest in wellness and self-directed care has led to an awareness of this alternative method. This project examines some empirical data on the clinical, counseling, medical, and educational uses of biofeedback or self-regulation training. It is a practical and realistic look at how individuals can take responsibility for their own progress when dealing with issues such as stress and illness.
Faculty Sponsor:
Coker, Amy. William James` views on Habit and Instinct.
William James was the forerunner of functional psychology in the 19th century. His book, Principles of Psychology, written in 1890, is considered one of the greatest books ever written. The chapters in his book focus mainly on the functions of the mind. He discusses the mental functions in an evolutionary context. Some of the topics discussed in the book are habits, memory, instinct, self, sensation, and attention. Two of the most interesting chapters are on habit and instinct. James stressed the importance of forming good habits while a person is young. He viewed instinct as an impulse and believed that man had more than any other lower creature. James believed that habits and instincts were very important for adaptation and survival. The purpose of this article is to further explore James` views of habit and instinct.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dobbs, Dotty. Mentall Illness: From Demonic Possession to Prescription Dependency.
The methods of treatment of mentally ill people has always been a complex topic of controversy. Methods have usually been determined by the combined forces of society, economics and politics which dominate the zeitgeist of the time. This brief review from medieval times to the present begins with demonic possession and closes with prescription dependency, but the major emphasis is on the history of institutionalization.The impact on the fields of psychology are noted, and speculation is offered on future perspectives. The increased complexity of life often results in increased mental illness. Perhaps by examining past attempts to alleviate society of mentally ill individuals, knowledge can be gained for more successful treatments as the 21st century comes into focus.
Faculty Sponsor:
Elder, Kara. G.S. Hall: The birth of child study.
Granville Stanley Hall was responsible for Psychology`s evolving identity as a distinct academic discipline. As functional Psychology slowly emerged, Hall implemented the focus of mind to that of the child, being that if the child is understood, so too is the evolution of human species. From his child studies arose the focus on education. He proposed an educational system that would center around the stages of a child`s development. Hall`s studies paved the way for the continued research on Developmental and Educational Psychology.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF psychology

Historical Papers

Everly, Joey. The Rorschach Test.
The Rorschach Inkblot Test was developed by Hermann Rorschach. Rorschach was a swiss psychiatrist who used his interests in psychoanalysis to develope an abstract system to use as a diagnostic tool. Because of rorschach`s early death other`s took his ideas and developed different styles and interpretations of his test. Some of these are still being considered and use today.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Historical Papers

Ezell, Heidi. The Meaning of Dreams.
To Sigmund Freud dreams are the key to the unconscious. Dreams provide a lot of information because during sleep a person is more relaxed and resistance, therefore they can be caught off guard. The wishes and desires that are forbidden access in normal conscious states have a chance to slip out. Freud analyzed dreams based on his self-analysis. He wrote a book entitled "The Interpretation of Dreams," which is based on dreams that he had as a boyand analyzed many years later. Freud believed that sex was an important factor when it came to analying dreams. He argued that what a person dreams is something that they would not do or say in a conscious state of mind.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gamble, Donna. Maria Montessori: The Montessori Method.
Maria Montessori was a scientist and medical practitioner, not a trained educator, but her true love was that of education and for children. She was a pioneer in education who believed in individualized learning. In the early 1900`s she developed a philosophy of education known as the Montessori method. The Montessori approach offers a broad vision of education as an aid to life, which promotes the child as a citizen of the world. This paper will discuss how the Montessori method was developed and why it is still used today in Montessori schools all over the world.
Faculty Sponsor:
Grouse, Christy. The History of Mental Testing.
Individual differences have intrigued the world since Darwin`s theory of evolution was published in 1859. Francis Galton pioneered the study of individual differences with his mental testing experiments. Though the format has changed significantly, intelligence tests still exist today. However, intelligence testing has faced great controversy since its inception. Most criticisms arise from the use of the intelligence test as a labeling device and concern over whether the tests truly measure intelligence. Despite the controversy, the area of mental testing has and will continue to thrive as long as society is concerned with individual differences.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hall, Trina. Re-Creating a Future for People with Disabilities.
People with disabilities have been scrutinized since the beginning of time. This historically-based paper will discuss what is now looked upon as inhumane treatment in terms of various societal influences in past decades. The recreational movement is the core to my research in this realm, and the development of therapeutic recreation will educate the reader about present-day services in this field of human services and what the future may bring.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hernandez, Jennifer. The Search for Understanding: The History of Mental Illness.
The treatment of the mentally ill has greatly improved in recent years. This is greatly due to the fact that we now have a better understanding and acceptance of people with mental disorders. This paper examines the different historical beliefs and approaches toward people with mental illnesses. It tells of the struggle and success of the leaders who fought for better understanding of the mentally ill. This paper also gives insight into the field of mental illness and psychiatry today and the possible direction for the field in the future.
Faculty Sponsor:
Jennings, Dennis. The History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test.
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test is recognized as a basic measure of intelligence in a battery of tests that attempt to predict achievement. Since there are various definitions of the term intelligence, this test has a large number of subtests that measure various aspects of intelligence. Subtests measure vocabulary, comprehension, absurdities, reasoning, verbal relations, problem solving, pattern analysis, and matrices (Sternberg, 1996). This paper looks at the history of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test from its inception to the modern versions used today. There will be substantial information concerning the precursors of this test and of subsequent branches from the test that were historically significant. Finally, this paper concludes with a prediction of the future of intelligence testing.
Faculty Sponsor:
Jestes, Dusty A.. Sigmund Freud: What Makes You....You?.
Sigmund Freud created the psychodynamic theory of personality in the 1800’s. This theory emphasizes the importance of early childhood experience and development, the effects of repressed thoughts that cannot be voluntarily accessed, and the conflict between conscious and unconscious processing on our thoughts and resulting behaviors. Overall, Freud believed that personality was acquired from the experiences and stages an individual must face during his/her childhood. In fact, it was Freud who tried to give us an answer to the question of “Who am I,” and more importantly, “Why.”
Faculty Sponsor:
Kemp, Mario. Examining the Relationship Between Crime and Behavior Modification..
This paper will discuss the relationship between crime and various styles of behavior modification. I will examine some behavior modification techniques utilized in relation to criminal behavior, their successes and failures and their impact on the criminal justice system.
Faculty Sponsor:
Kesse, Sarah. William James and His Idea of the Self.
William James and his idea of the self has had an influence on many topics of research and theories in psychology today. Personality, behavior, and social psychology are examples of areas of psychology that have their roots in James` idea of the self. The Zeitgeist and discipline of psychology during William James` time, as well as the major influences in his life will be explored. One of the greatest founders of psychology and his formulation of the idea of self will be traced through history.
Faculty Sponsor:
Kimsey, Chris. Renee Descartes` Legacy.
The father of modern psychology, Renee Descartes,made two major contributions to this science. The argument on the interaction between the mind and the body was his first contribution. The second contribution he made was the methods and techniques used on developing his new philosophy. These two contributions gave psychology its subject matte as well as guideline to when doing research. Without Descartes` approach, psychology would have no subject matter to discuss or study. His impact is still being felt today.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gayle Law. Remembering the Forgotten: A Historical Perspective of Alzheimer`s Disease.
Since the times of Hippocrates, the loss of memory and other mental faculties in the elderly have been recognized, yet it was not until 1906 that Dr. Alzheimer first described the disease. Many unanswered questions surfaced about Alzheimer`s followed concerning whether the disorder was only one disease that could have both an early and a late onset or whether these two forms of dementia were merely representative of two distinct diseases. Today, approximately four million Americans suffer from Alzheimer`s, thus calling for increased research in an attempt to understand the causes and possible treatments for this devastating disease.
Faculty Sponsor:
Moore, Leasa. John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
Locke`s Essay is a culmination of twenty years of intellectual work in which he opposes the belief of innate ideas and describes an experience based theory of knowledge. This paper will trace the evolution of his theory and compare it to other influential people of the era.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lucas, Kristin. Jean Piaget and His Theory of Cognitive Development.
Jean Piaget is one of the most prominent psychologists in the field of child psychology. He dedicated more than six decades to working and studying with children. Through this extensive research, he formed a theory of cognitive development. Piaget`s work has made several implications on education and several guidelines have been established as a result. The purpose of this paper is to discuss Jean Piaget`s theory, look at those individuals who influenced his work, and describe the impact of this theory on education.
Faculty Sponsor:
Mayfield, Amy. John Dewey`s Progressive View on Education.
John Dewey was an American philosopher who was very much influenced by Darwinian Theory and American pragmatism of the early twentieth century. He made significant contributions to educational reform including his belief that students should be active learners which launched the movement that came to be known as progressive education. This paper will look at Dewey`s philosophy of education and how it has influenced education as well as create controversey, even today.
Faculty Sponsor:
McCready, Christine. The Impact That Kurt Lewin Had In Psychology.
This paper will be examining the effect and impact that Kurt Lewin had in Psychology. His background will be discussed and some of his major contributions will also be looked at. Also, some predictions will be made as far as the future of his findings are concerned.
Faculty Sponsor:
Rice, Heather. Trends in Animal Experimentation: Past, Present, and Future.
The knowledge we have gained from the use of animals in laboratory research is arguably insurmountable. The means by which we have used animals in laboratory research is arguably unethical. The conflict between researchers and animal rights activists has been and continues to be an issue of concern. This paper will examine the history of the use of animals in research, the antivivisection movement, the impact of animal experimentation in the science of psychology, arguments for and against the use of animals in research, current trends in animal experimentation, and predictions of future debate of the issue.
Faculty Sponsor:
Wilson, Joy. Advancements in the treatment of mental illness.
The progression in the field of clinical psychology and how to treat the mentally ill has come a long distance over the years. From the times of Phillipe Pinel, 1745-1826, who created the program "moral treatment", to the still advancing programs today, the treatment of the mentally ill has greatly improved. Many advances have been discovered to result in more humane treatment for those with ilnesses.
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51 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY8
CS/MATH/PHYSICS1
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS, THEATRE, AND HUMANIT1
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY1
EDUCATION2
PSYCHOLOGY38
EMPIRICAL25
HISTORICAL PAPER26