Program for the Fall 2000 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF biology

Empirical Projects

Ash, David Baker, Robert Eckdahl, Todd. Investigation of the NQO2 oxo-reductase gene.
The gene NQO2 is a gene in the human genome that codes for oxo-reductase enzymes in the human body. This gene is not an oncogene nor does it code for any genetic diseases. The sequence for the NQO2 gene was located on GenBank and was attempted to be compared to two human sample sequences. The comparison is done to identify new alleles or possible errors in the original GenBank sequence. Both outcomes are important because GenBank is a widely used tool and any errors found are critical as well as any identification as a new allele. The sample sequences were isolated from two authors (Ash & Baker). The process of isolation of DNA from the authors was successful as well as the PCR performed on the samples. The sequencing of the samples was not as good. The sequencing data showed several unidentifiable sites in the sequence. This was discouraging but the error in the sequencing can be corrected and the determinations of the NQO2 gene can be made.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Biology

Empirical Projects

Baker, Robert and Dr. Todd Eckdahl. DNA Sequencing of Missouri Sculpins.
PCR product was gathered on four different species of sculpins from Missouri watersheds. The DNA products were measured by ultraviolet absorbance on a UV spectrophotometer. After the products were quantified they were diluted to 30ng/ml and then sent to Iowa State to be sequenced.
Faculty Sponsor:
Billups, Heather. Comparison of nematode numbers from moss collected off of organic and inorganic substrates.
Nematodes live in various habitats, including soil and plant matter. Samples of moss growing on trees and moss growing on rocks was collected and viewed qualitatively. From this, it was noted that the numbers nematodes from the moss of trees was more abundant than nematodes from moss of rocks. This study follows up this observation, so see if indeed nematodes numbers favor moss from organic substrates to inorganic substrates. The nematodes were filtered from the moss by use of a nematode study kit from Carolina Supply Company. 40ml of rainwater containing the nematodes was drawn off of each of the samples and the numbers of round worms were counted. Final results and statistical analysis has yet to be done.
Faculty Sponsor:
Boydston, Leigh and Wells, Laura. Peroxidase Levels in Plants.
Our purpose in doing this experiment is to test the levels of isoenzymes of peroxidase in plants both under normal conditions and stressed conditions. We chose this topic to research because of the importance of this technology in agriculture. With this very simple procedure we are demonstrating the possibility of using biotechnology and molecular biology to come up with genetically modified crops for use in agriculture production. With this research we are demonstrating the affects of plant peroxidase production in soybeans and alfalfa when natural stresses occur. Technology may advance itself to the point that modifications could be done to plants so that no affects would be observed when a drought or flood occurs. This would make it less stressful for farmers when nature becomes very unpredictable.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brewer, Shannon and Scott Stephens. Estimation of the survival and growth of aquatic plants at the Smithville Reservoir nursery three months after introduction.
During the last several years, aquatic vegetation densities at the reservoir have become low and fish recruitment has suffrered as a result. In July 2000, a nursery was established focusing on aquatic and shoreline vegetation. This study is a random plot survey of the aquatic vegetation established in the nursery. The results of this survey shows a substantial increase in all of the introduced aquatic plants plus the occurance of several invading species.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brewer, Shannon. Preliminary insights to the growth rates, reproduction, and pollution tolerance of the Northern crayfish, Orconectes virilis, in the Blue River.
Water pollutants have been found to negatively affect hormonally regulated functions such as reproduction and molting in many crustaceans. However, it has been suggested that the northern crayfish, O. virilis, may be significantly more tolerant to many pollutants and therefor a good candidate for aquaculture. This study investigates how water chemistry may influence the length-frequency, sex, and reproductive status of O. virilis. Four hundred ninety six crayfish were collected using backpack electrofishing and drag seining at four sites of similar habitat types along the Blue River. Five water samples were taken randomly from each site for analysis using a spectrophotometer. Length-frequency analysis revealed significant differences between the lengths of crayfish collected at sites one and two and those collected at sites three and four. Significant differences were also found between the mean lengths of males and females at all locations. There were more F2 individuals collected at all sites but the differences between the number of F1 and F2 individuals was found to be insignificant. The analysis of crayfish length, sex, and reproductive status will be compared with the results of the water quality tests once they have been statistically evaluated using SPSS. This project provides information that will be used on continued studies of growth rates and reproduction of O. virilis in the Blue River.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brown, Abby L., and Chandler, Michelle L.. The effects of the antitumor drug DAPI on gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae.
This study focused on effects of an antitumor drug, DAPI, which is thought to terminate transcription by binding in the minor groove of DNA, on gene expression in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisae, which has recently had its genome sequenced, is a model organism used in genetic research. In this experiment two populations of S. cerevisae were cultured in YPD, a glucose based medium. The experimental population was treated with the drug DAPI at a 10 uM concentration, and the untreated population remained unexposed. RNA was isolated from each population and was reverse transcribed into cDNA, which was then replicated through the process of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR. The GAL1/GAL10 primer was used in this reaction to amplify a single gene from the yeast genome that functions in the metabolism of galactose. Levels of transcription were then measured by gel electrophoresis of the amplified cDNA obtained from RT-PCR. Based on previous research, it was predicted that transcription would be repressed in the treated population due to the effects of minor groove binding. The results of the experiment did indicate that there was a difference in transcript production between the treated and untreated yeast cells. However, the amplification of RNA, when viewed in a "real time" PCR experiment, indicated that the presence of DAPI actually induced transcript production and consequently gene expression in yeast cultured in YPD. These results were the exact opposite of what was initially expected, but they corresponded with concurrent research being done on the effects of DAPI binding. A microarray experiment was also conducted on the RNA products amplified in this experiment, and is currently being analyzed at another research facility. The microarray data will serve to illustrate that a comparative gene expression study can be performed on a genome-wide scale with relatively the same ease as the single gene study done here.
Faculty Sponsor:
Casey, Jonn T.. A preliminary comparison of ground insect biodiversity on a native Missouri prairie and an adjacent agricultural field..
Tallgrass prairies were once a major landscape feature in all of the midwest states. Missouri has lost over 95% of its original holdings of this unique habitat. Current conservation efforts focus on effectively managing the few remaining native prairies and attempting to restore certain grassland tracts that have been converted to cropland or pasture. Most research on prairie management techniques used within our state have involved the monitoring of plant communities. This study was initiated in the fall of 2000 to evaluate the composition of insect communities associated with a pristine prairie (Little Tarkio Prairie) and adjacent cropland which is being restored by the Missouri Department of Conservation. Each habitat was sampled over a 24 hour period with the use of twelve pitfall traps equally spaced within an area of 150 square meters. Specimens collected from each site were sorted by morphotype, counted and processed according to standard entomological procedures. A series of voucher specimens will be deposited in the MWSC Natural History Collection. Current analysis of data indicates a greater species richness (total number of species observed) in the cropland habitat but a greater numerical abundance of insects in the native prairie. Certain insect species were found to be equally common in both habitats while other insect species were predominantly found in one habitat or the other. This project provides baseline information which can be used to help understand the patterns and processes of insect succession as Missouri croplands are restored to native tallgrass prairies.
Faculty Sponsor:
Chandler, Michelle. Measuring cellular respiration in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorina.
The hissing cockroach, Gromphadorina, has been used as a laboratory model for scientific research in many introductory biology labs. In this project, the question was proposed as to the ability of undergraduate researchers to measure the cellular respiration occurring in these organisms under conditions of varying physiological stress. A study was modeled using a system of probes that quantifies CO2 production (as a measure of metabolism) in a closed environment containing the subject of interest. The roaches were subjected to physical stress in the form of racing down a track constructed from a length of PVC pipe cut in half. The concentration of CO2 was measured before and after the roaches engaged in activity. A key factor in this study was the accuracy of the probe measurements. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS and graphical analysis. The results have not been analyzed to completion yet, but the hope is still to see that this system can be refined and standardized for use in the undergraduate laboratory environment.
Faculty Sponsor:
Crowley, Amanda and Stark, Danny. Family relationships sorted by D1S80.
Many of our siblings have accused us of being adopted. By using molecular methods we were able to show distinct family relationships disproving this accusation. The non-coding allele D1S80 has been a model allele in classroom procedures. D1S80 contains a variable number of tandem repeats, which make it possible for investigation into paternity and forensic crime testing. The standard methods used to accomplish this goal are DNA isolation, PCR amplification, and gel electrophoresis. A problem we encountered was the amount of magnesium chloride and the quantity of DNA per person required to produce significant results and stop non-specific binding. We justified our methods using class samples and carried these over to obtain our goal of comparing family relationships.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dennis, Eric. Interpretive Aquatic Vegetation Pond.
>Interpretive Aquatic Pond for Educational Purposes > >Dennis, Eric L. Conservation/Wildlife Research Program, Biology Department, >Missouri Western State College, MO 64507 USA Missouri Department of >Conservation Northwest Regional Office, Fisheries Division, St. Joseph, >Missouri 64507 USA > > >Aquatic vegetation is a critical part of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Aquatic >vegetation supplies, cover and serve as food source for aquatic insects, >amphibians, birds, mammals, and fish. Because there are abundant numbers of >different species of aquatic vegetation in Missouri, it was our goal to set up >an Interpretive Aquatic Vegetation Pond for Educational Purposes. > Twenty-five different species of aquatic vegetation replaced the once >cattail infested 0.2 acre pond behind the Missouri Department of Conservation >NW Regional Office in St. Joseph, MO and transformed it into a rejuvenated >aquatic vegetation nature center. Each aquatic plant was planted in separate 5-gallon >buckets 10 feet apart and labeled with common name and scientific name. The >goal of this project was to educate the public about the different types of >aquatic vegetation in Missouri and to help them identify the native aquatic >plants. The aquatic vegetation site is not only located behind the Missouri >Department of Conservation NW Regional Office, but also on the campus of >Missouri Western State College. The easily accessed pond will be frequented by >primary and secondary biology classes as well as the Naturalists, Fisheries >and Wildlife Divisions of the Missouri Department of Conservation, for >workshops and aquatic programs for the public.
Faculty Sponsor:
Elder, Terry L., Scott, Adrienne and Cary D. Chevalier. Blood serum chemistry and hematology in field-fresh raccoons (Procyon lotor) in northwest Missouri..
Standard serum chemistry and hematological values were measured on 11 field-fresh raccoons (5 males, 6 females) from a broadleaf deciduous forest habitat of northwest Missouri. The purpose of this study was to establish reference standards of serum chemistry and hematology of this population of raccoons under chemical restraint. The following serum components were measured (male values/female values, mean and standard deviation, SD, in parentheses: glucose (mg/dL; 110/86, SD = 36/25), sodium (Na; mmol/L; 155/152, SD = 5/4), potassium (K; mmol/L; 4/4, SD = 0.6/0.3), chloride (mmol/L; 121/116, SD = 4/6), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; mg/dL; 18/21, SD = 4/9), creatinine (mg/dL; 0.8/0.9, SD = 0.2/0.05), BUN/creatinine ratio (21/25, SD = 8/13), calcium (Ca; mg/dL; 8/9, SD = 0.4/0.7), indirect phosphorus (P; mg/dL; 5/4, SD = 0.8/0.7), osmolality (MOSM/L; 307/304, SD = 9/8), total bilirubin (mg/dL; 0.1/0.1, SD = 0.0/0.04), aspartate transferase (AST; formerly SGOT; IU/L; 579/579, SD = 816/816), alanine transferase (ALT; formerly SGPT; IU/L; 235/162, SD = 185/50), cholesterol (mg/dL; 193/207, SD = 44/38), triglyceride (mg/dL; 47/41, SD = 9/11), CPK (U/L; 7145/850, SD = 8192/9534), total protein (g/dL; 8/8, SD = 0.6/0.7), albumin (A; g/dL; 3/3, SD = 0.5/0.5), globulin (G; g/dL; 5/5, SD = 0.7/0.7) lipase (L; U/L; 410/500, SD = 126/166) and amylase (U/L; 2227/2349, SD = 897/508). Hematological values measured included: leukocytes (103/mm3; 6.8/9.3, SD = 2/3.2), erythrocytes (106/mm3; 9.7/8.7, SD = 1/0.4), hemoglobin (g/dL; 13/11, SD = 2/0.8), hematocrit (%; 39/33, SD = 4/2), mean cellular volume (MCV; fL; 41/38, SD = 2/1), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; pg; 13/13, SD = 0.3/0.6), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC; g/dL; 32/35, SD = 2/1), absolute neutrophils (5126/6446, SD = 1777/3154), absolute lymphocytes (912/1968, SD = 107/833), absolute monocytes (463/261, SD = 370/146), absolute eosinophils (262/533, SD = 243/511), absolute basophils (38/76, SD = 46/70), absolute banded neutrophils (0/0). Males possessed higher hematocrits and mean cellular values while females had higher lymphocyte counts. Our initial qualitative comparison to reference values in the Wildlife Rehabilitation Database of Tufts University’s School of Veterinary Medicine suggests that our values are similar. Blood chemistry and hematology profiles are important for establishing normal health profiles which, in turn, are essential for monitoring population health and for understanding the dynamics of disease, energy, and nutrition in wildlife populations.
Faculty Sponsor:
Ed Hansen, Rich Fine. Temperature: Its Effects on DAPI Binding to Bent DNA.
Abstract: Bent DNA is known to have a direct cause in tumor production of cancer. Medications have been discovered that can bind to the minor groove in the DNA helix, thus changing its structure to a more linear fashion. This causes inhibition of the further production of tumors. The most common and effective drug in this is DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). DAPI inhibits assembly of nucleosomes onto both synthetic and natural sequences that have multiple, closely spaced oligo-AT sequences that serve as drug binding sites. With differing concentrations of the DAPI, a test was conducted to determine the above stated. This trial had abnormal results, which led to the belief that heat influences the effect DAPI has on the binding to DNA. Repeating the trials at different temperatures, along with the different concentrations as before and the addition of a restriction enzyme, to observe the different effects in the binding to test this hypothesis. If the non-covalent bonds were altered at certain temperatures between the DAPI and the bent DNA helix in the body, then questions could be raised about the drug working for its prescribed purpose. After viewing the polyacrylamide gel, differences were evident. In the cold environment, the greatest binding was found. Binding was less prevalent when tested at room temperature, while no binding was found in the greatest temperature tested. Two conclusions were found though this project. First, due to the inhibition of the binding to the narrow groove with elivated heat, a patient who is taking DAPI for tumorours cancer, may not be receiving the full benifit of the drug therapy. Secondly, the restriction enzymes used produced bands on the PA gel that specifed the sites where DAPI binds to the bent DNA. These sites are known to be oligo-AT rich sequences. The results opened up many new possibilities in further research of this drug involving heat/energy involvement in antitumor medications.
Faculty Sponsor:
Harlow, Sylvia; Lynn, Shana. Effects of DNA Minor Groove Binding Drugs DAPI & Hoechst on the Generation Time of yeast.
Abstract DAPI and Hoechst are DNA minor groove binding drugs which have anti-tumor activity. The mechanism of this activity is unknown, therefore an experiment was designed to study the effects of these drugs on the generation time of S. cerevisiae. Cultures entering log phase were treated with four different concentrations of either DAPI or Hoechst. The optical density (O.D.) at a wavelength of 660 was recorded to measure the growth rate of the cultures. The results indicated that neither DAPI nor Hoechst had any significant effect on the generation time of S. cerevisiae.
Faculty Sponsor:
Jacobs, Alicia; Paul, Annalee. SKELETAL MUSCLE LDH ISOENZYME LEVELS IN HUMANS BEFORE AND AFTER AEROBIC ACTIVITY.
Lactate Dehydrogenase is an isoenzyme used in the body during the process of oxidizing glucose, and is also used to convert pyruvate into lactic acid. Since lactic acid is production is increased during exercise, we tested to see whether LDH levels would also increase during anaerobic activity, such as running stairs. This experiment could be helpful in a variety of fields, but especially for athletics, or biological sciences. By treating blood, and analyzing it on a native separating Polyacrylamide gel, we hoped to see differences in both cardiac LDH and skeletal muscle LDH levels. After analyzing our gels, we saw definite widening and darkening of the bands for skeletal muscle, which indicated an increase of LDH isoenzyme. However, in cardiac muscle LDH, we did not see an increase, which leads us to believe that it may require more grueling physical stress to cause a change in these levels. Another theory is that cardiac LDH levels may only be affected during stress only to the heart such as a heart attack.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lingenfelter, Joy. The tendency of regenerated sections of "trained" planaria to "remember" conditioned responses.
Planaria are free-living, non-parasitic flatworms that can be found in most streams, rivers and lakes. Certain species of planaria (ie. Dugesia dorotocephala) are often used to study learning and regeneration in lower invertebrates. Members of this species can be trained to consistently turn right or left when introduced into a simple "Y" maze. Members of this species are also often used during laboratory experiments in mitosis and regeneration. Individuals from which heads have been removed can regenerate entire replacement heads in a time as short as one week. I studied the tendency of regenerated sections from "trained" planaria to "remember" conditioned responses when confronted with a "Y" maze. My hypothesis was that anterior sections of regenerated worms would have better memory than posterior sections. I utilized a "Train-A-Tray" apparatus obtained from Carolina Biological Supply Company to train separate groups of fifteen planaria to turn to the right or to the left when confronted with a "Y" maze. Animals from three treatment groups (right-turn trained, left-turn trained, and untrained animals) were sectioned into three portions: head, anterior body, and posterior body. The worms have regenerated sufficiently and I am now conducting the post-regeneration trials.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lynn, Shana M. and Harlow, Sylvia. Effects of DNA Minor Groove Binding Drugs DAPI and Hoechst on Yeast Generation Time.
DAPI and Hoechst are DNA minor groove binding drugs which have anti-tumor activity. The mechanism of this activity is unknown, therefore an experiment was designed to study the effects of these drugs on the generation time of S. cerevisiae. Cultures entering log phase were treated with four different concentrations of either DAPI or Hoechst. The optical density (O.D.) at a wavelength of 660 was recorded to measure the growth rate of the cultures. The results indicated that DAPI and Hoechst have no significant effect on the generation time of S. cerevisiae.
Faculty Sponsor:
Morey, Brian and Adrienne Scott. A Study of the Transient and Nesting Bird Species in Five Habitat Categories with an Analysis of the effectiveness of 8-minute vs. 15-minute Observational Periods in a Point Count Survey.
Ninety-nine (99) species of birds were observed in five (5) different habitat categories during five (5), 10-day sampling periods at the Pony Express Conservation Area near Osborn, Mo. from May 1 to June 20, 2000. The highest bird diversity indices (Simpson`s and Shannon-Weaver)were found in the old field/tallgrass prairie/forest edge/pond habitat category, followed by old field/tallgrass prairie, then the successional forest/forest edge/pond, then the forest/forest edge, and then the agricultural field habitat category. This study also showed a marked increase in the total birds and new species during the final seven (7) minutes over the first eight (8) minutes of the 15-minute observational period used during the point-count sampling method. This result suggests that the extra seven (7) minutes of time used in the 15-minute observational period over the traditional 8-minute observational period may produce a more representative picture of the birds around each sampling point. Support from the Missouri Department of Conservation.
Faculty Sponsor:
Nelson, Lizzie; Stratton, Marissa; Epifanio, Charles. Cues for Metamorphosis of the Japanese Shore Crab.
CUES FOR METAMORPHOSIS OF THE JAPANESE SHORE CRAB HEMIGRAPSUS SANGUINEUS. Sonya E. Nelson, Marissa L. Stratton, and Charles E. Epifanio. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd, Lewes, DE 19958. The pacific brachyuran Hemigrapsus sanguineus was first found in the United States in 1988. Its range now includes much of the east coast where it competes with native decapods and is becoming more abundant. Understanding its potential range expansion requires learning about how it chooses habitat. This study examined two habitat types for metamorphosis cues to make inferences about what areas might later be invaded. Chemical cues are present in suitable habitat and accelerate metamorphosis from the megalopal to juvenile stage. To determine which habitats contain cues, megalopae were reared in offshore water (the negative control) alone or with a conditioning factor potentially containing a metamorphosis cue: pebbles from two rocky intertidal areas along the Delaware Bay, or marsh sediment from north of Lewes, DE with or without vegetation and live or dried (to eliminate organic factors). Mean time to metamorphosis (MTM) was calculated for each and used in 1-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD multiple comparison tests (=0.05). CMS rocks yielded a MTM significantly different from the negative control. The cue may be from exudates of adult conspecifics or biofilm on rocks. Because rocky intertidal treatments accelerated metamorphosis, it can be inferred that H. sanguineus prefers that habitat type.
Faculty Sponsor:
Penland, Will. A preliminary comparison of invertebrate biodiversity in leaf-litter communities associated with two major habitats of northwest Missouri..
Recent scientific research on soil and leaf-litter biodiversity is increasing our knowledge of the species richness and distribution of soil organisms and their valuable roles in ecological succession. Most research in Missouri has focused on leaf-litter communities in upland forests of the Ozark Plateau. This study was designed as a comparative analysis of leaf-litter communities in two natural microhabitats typical of glaciated northwest Missouri. We sampled two communities (a tallgrass prairie and a temperate deciduous forest) on the campus of Missouri Western State College for leaf-litter invertebrates. In early November we collected five random samples from each mature habitat. Each sample was then transferred to a Micro-Berlese Funnel apparatus, and then placed under flood-lamps in the laboratory. The heat and light from the flood-lamps drove the organisms from the leaf-litter into a collecting container. These samples were preserved and examined to determine species diversity and abundance. Thus far, a comparable number of species (species richness) was recovered from the two habitats, but the forest habitat yielded a larger number of invertebrate specimens.
Faculty Sponsor:
Porter, Tiffany; Watkins, Lori. Gene Expression in the Early Stages of Chicken Embryos.
The purpose of this project was to measure changes in gene expression in the development of chickens. The gene being measured in the experiment was the Sonic Hedgehog gene. In chickens it is important for limb development. The original plan for the project was to isolate RNA from the chickens at different stages of incubation to see when the gene is first expressed and if there is a time it isn`t. RNA isolation was done on two different days of incubation, after 10 and 12 days. The isolation process was done using several different methods to find the one that worked best for isolating from animal tissue. Sterile technique is very important in isolating RNA because there are RNases everywhere that could destroy it. The procedure used was a modified version of RNA isolation of yeast cells. After RNA was isolated RT PCR was done to measure the gene expression. This process takes the RNA and changes it to cDNA. Two different gels were ran on the end products to see results. An RNA gel was ran to see the RNA that was isolated. This was done using different chemicals that prevented degradation of the RNA. An agarose gel was also ran on the RT PCR products to measure expression of the gene. Unfortunately this procedure was not successful for isolating the RNA from our chickens.
Faculty Sponsor:
Quick, Brandon S.; Chevalier, Cary; and Speer, Rick. Nest Dumping Phenomena In Wood Ducks investigated based on nest box construction and placement.
Nest dumping is a situation in which more than one female wood duck Aix sponsa attempts to use one nest box. The second arriving female dumps her eggs on top of the previously laid clutch. This activity is known to occur in most managed populations of wood ducks. In this study, it was a goal to determine whether this phenomena occurred in Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge’s population and if so determine whether box construction and/or placement may have an influence. By using a proven nest investigation method it was determined that dump nests do occur with in this population. Although, data from this study was unable to show significance between nest dumping and box construction and/or placement. It was concluded that a larger data set needs to be obtained over several years to provide a better comparison between the different box types.
Faculty Sponsor:
Quick, Brandon S., Cary D. Chevalier, and Rick Speer. Missouri Western State College, Department of Biology, St. Joseph, MO 64507 USA (BSQ and CDC); Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge, Mound City,. The effect of nest box construction, habitat cover, and substrate on nest dumping phenomena in wood ducks at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge..
Nest dumping in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) is where more than one female attempts to use the same nest box. The second female dumps her eggs on top of the previously laid clutch. This activity is known to occur in most managed populations of wood ducks and operates at Squaw Creek NWR as well. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of box construction material (wood vs. metal), cover (in the open or in the presence of cover), and substrate (positioned over land or water) on dumping behavior. Our hypothesis: There is no effect of box construction material, cover, or substrate on nest dumping intensity. Data gathered consisted of membrane counts and whole egg counts. We used a 3 factorial Analysis of Variance Fixed Effects Model with our factors being construction, cover, and substrate as indicated above. There was no effect of any of the factors apparent in this data for membrane counts (F = 0.967; d.f. = 5; P = 0.45). A similar analysis on egg count data yielded a significant (F = 2.652; d.f. = 5; P = 0.037). Upon closer inspection, we found that significance occurred at the substrate – construction interaction. We determined that there was one metal box that had 22 eggs in it where all the other wooden boxes over land averaged 1.3 eggs. This extreme dumping in the one metal box influenced the overall ANOVA model construction. When we combined our egg count data with membrane count data to evaluate dumping in active nests our resulting model was insignificant (F = 0.25; d.f. = 5; P = 0.305) thereby supporting our hypothesis. This is the first time this approach has been taken with the wood duck monitoring program at Squaw Creek NWR, so we consider our data preliminary. We will increase our sample size over subsequent seasons to see if our tentative conclusions persist.
Faculty Sponsor:
Reece, Nathan and Peterson, Brianna. LDH- Sleep Deprivation.
The testing of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels is a widely used method of determining whether or not tissue damage is present. LDH levels are elevated after tissue has been damaged. The testing of LDH levels results in five significant bands. Certain bands are indicative of which type of tissue has been damaged. An increase in the the levels of the 1st and 2nd bands can be translated to damage to tissue located in the heart, pancreas kidney, and brain. Likewise, an increase in the 4th and 5th bands means skeletal muscle tissue or liver tissue has been damaged. Sleep deprivation is classically defined as being detrimental to your health. The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether or not sleep deprivation actually causes tissue damage. One individual was used throughout the ongoing experiment, to decrease the chances of variability in the results. Samples were taken from the individual under three circumstances. The first samples were controls, taken after the individual received the recommended eight hours of sleep. The second sample was meant to be a positive control for tissue damage. The third was the experimental. The subject was required to stay awake for over twenty four hours continuously and the sample was then taken. The results showed no definite tissue damage in the variable. The period of no rest could have not been significant enough for dramatic results.
Faculty Sponsor:
Stark, Danny. Analyzing Armadillidium vulgare light preference and metabolic rates.
Armadillidium vulgare or what we all know as rolly pollies play an important role in forest communities. Many of us well remember these organisms that curl up into a ball enabling you to roll them around on the floors. These creatures are terrestrial representatives of their class; most others live in marine and aquatic environments. Pill bugs have pulled away from the aquatic habitats and managed to take up residency in woody habitats. They contribute to decomposition of leaf liter and other organic debris creating a nutrient rich soil that most plants thrive in. These pill bugs primarily live in the dark, under rocks, leaves, and soil. The usually display a negative phototaxic behavior. I tested this behavior under three different light intensities: dark, low florescent, and bright intense light. It was my hypothesis that they would prefer the dark to any other light source and that their rate of respiration would be lower. I am currently analyzing results of the behavior component of my study and I am developing the experimental protocol to measure isopod metabolic rates.
Faculty Sponsor:
Willis, Kimberly; Glasgow, Laura. Comparison of Protein Binding Affinities to Dyes.
Albumin is the most abundant protein in the circulatory system and facilitates the transfer of many ligands across organ-circulatory interfaces such as in the liver, intestine, kidney and brain. Albumin binding ligands represent a spectrum of diverse molecules, including fatty acids, amino acids, steroids, metals such as calcium, copper and zinc, and many pharmaceuticals. BSA is synthesized initially as preproalbumin by the liver. The processed protein contains 607 amino acids and a molecular weight of 69,323 daltons. Eosin B, Phenol Red, Orange G, Fast Green and Carmen Indigo all demonstrated binding to the BSA to some degree. Analine Blue did not bind to the BSA. Functional groups with a carboxcylic like structure appear to bind best to BSA. Currently, there is little research information available on molecular interactions of ligands and albumins. Future work expected to increase due to phamacological applications
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Biology and Chemistry

Empirical Projects

Glasgow, Laura; Baker, Jason; Caldwell, Benjamin. Investigations of the effect of NSAIDs on antibiotic susceptibilty.
Antibiotic resistance has become a rising concern. Evolution of microorganisms has proven to be more efficient than technology, and antibiotic resistance has become an increasing threat since the 1960’s. Resistance generally has been genetically passed through transformation, plasmid exchange or spontaneous mutation. While the focus has been on misuse of antibiotics, other issues require investigation. Recent research has shown that drugs other than antibiotics may also enhance or compromise antibiotic susceptibility1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to interfere with antibiotic susceptibility2. Salicylic acid, ibuprofen and acetaminophen were tested in combination with ciprofloxacin for increased antibiotic resistance against fluoroquinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. The Kirby-Bauer method, employing antibiotic impregnated sensitivity disks, was used to assess the effect of the NSAIDs3. 1. Price, C.T.; O’Brien, F.G.; Shelton, B.P.; et al. Effects of salicylate and related compounds on fusidic acid MICs in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1999, 44, 57-64. 2. Gustafson, J.E.; Candelaria, P.V.; Fisher, S.A.; et al. Growth in the presence of salicylate increases fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999, 43 (4), 990-992. 3. Harley, J.P.; Prescott, L.M. The effects of chemical agents on bacteria: Antimicrobial agents (Kirby-Bauer Method). Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology, 2nd edition.; Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque, Ia, 1993; Chapter 49.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Chemistry

Empirical Projects

Harlow, Sylvia. Expression and Purification of Secretory Pathway Proteins from E.-coli for Generation of Polyclonal Antibodies.
Abstract: Many neuropeptide hormones from the pituitary gland are modified by PAM (peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase) before secretion. Therefore, proper routing and sorting of this enzyme within secretory cells is of importance. PAM is a transmembrane protein and relies on the interaction of certain amino acid sequences in the cytosol interacting with proteins involved in targeting of PAM . Antibodies are an important tool used to investigate these interactions. Three proteins were chosen for isolation from E. coli, glutathione S-transferase (GST), a fusion protein of the cytosolic domain of PAM with GST (GST-CD) and PCIP-2 (a PAM cytosolic domain interactor protein). The proteins were purified and injected into rabbits for generation of polyclonal antibodies. Blood serum from the rabbits containing polyclonal antibodies was collected and analyzed for immuno-reactivity against these three proteins.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Department of Biology and Department of Nursing

Empirical Projects

Perez, Lindsay and Baker, Jason C.. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Properties of Essential Aromatherapy Oils.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine if essential aromatherapy oils have antibacterial properties. The testing procedure that was chosen for this experiment was the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The following oils were tested: Peppermint, Tea Tree, Patchouli, Eukalyptus, Lavender, Geranium, Rosemary, Rosewood, Wild Majoram, Thyme, and Cinnamon, all believed to have antibacterial properties. Each oil was tested for inhibitory properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Following incubation, plates were examined for zones of microbial growth inhibition surrounding disks soaked in each oil. Zones of inhibition for each oil were measured in millimeters and recorded. The results of this experiment show that many of the essential oils tested have varying degrees of antibacterial properties toward both species tested.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Education

Empirical Projects

Caldwell, Crystal and Overton, Karen. Effects of Positive Reinforcement on Behaviors.
This research project involved using positive reinforcement to modify behaviors of students. We opperationally defined off task behavior and talking out behavior. Target behaviors were selected and we researched justifications. Measurement and collection proceedures were chosen. We formed a hypothesis on the function of each behavior and based responses to positive reinforcement on classroom behaviors, teachers` responses and regular immediate reinforcement.
Faculty Sponsor:
Davis, Jamie. Behavior Modification.
For this project, I worked with a first grade student who is off-task in the classroom. I operationally defined the behavior, collected data, did research, designed an intervention, and concluded whether this intervention worked with this student.
Faculty Sponsor:
Harvey, Teresa; Hupp, Alissa. Performance Not Acquisition Deficit.
This research project involved working closely with a child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Target behaviors were chosen and defined. Justification for behavior modification was researched and measurement and collection procedures chosen. Hypothesis on the function of the behavior was based on classroom environment, teacher response, characteristics of the child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, response to intervention, and maintenance performance after fading of reward. Response proves that this child`s target behaviors are a result of a performance deficit, not an acquisition deficit caused by his disability.
Faculty Sponsor:
Mollett, Rebecca and Quinlan, Sarah. Behavior Modification Project.
For the project, we selected a student with classroom behavior problems and then we chose an intervention. For the project, we took data before, and during the intervention.
Faculty Sponsor:
Totten, Tina. A Single Subject Behavioral Management Project.
Educators seek to employ effective strategies to cope with maladaptive behaviors in the classroom setting. For this project, a 13-year-old male student identified with behavior disorder and ADHD was referred by his teacher for "talking out." This can be operationally defined as "talking without permission (i.e. hand-raising and waiting to be called on to speak) during instructional periods." Collection procedures were selected. Antecedents and consequences associated with the target behavior were observed and analyzed to hypothesize the function of said behavior. Based on this hypothesis, interventions were then chosen, implemented, and monitored for efficacy. A reversal to baseline phase supports the trend that was suggested by the graphic representation of the second intervention.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Nursing

Empirical Projects

Banks, Amber SN, Duncan, Monica SN, Troester, Jacque SN, Brooks, Evelyn RN, PhD.. The Effects of Short Term Interventions on Long Term Memory Retention.
Using General Systems Theory to guide the study, the purpose of the descriptive correlational study is to determine the effect of short term teaching interventions on long term memory retention of Basic Aid Training (BAT) for third to sixth grade students (n=101) from a rural elementary school. Students were given a pre-test obtained from the Midland Empire Chapter of the American Red Cross BAT instructors manual. In the Spring 2000 semester, the intervention was completed over the course of one school day. Immediately following the intervention, a post-test was given. In the Fall 2000 semester, seven months following the initial intervention, an additional post-test was given. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was calculated comparing the test scores of subjects at three different times: pre-test, post-test, and seven-month follow-up post-test. A significant effect was found (F(1,100) = 84.65, p < .000). Follow-up pairwise comparisons revealed that scores increased significantly from pre-test (m = 23.55, sd = 4.66) to post-test ( m = 28.71, sd = 4.16) and again from pre-test to seven month follow-up post-test ( m = 27.87, sd = 4.61) means. The data were consistent with the literature from Hornung, Lennon, Garrett, DeVellis, Weinberg, and Strecher (2000) who found a significant increase with a short-term educational intervention for skin cancer prevention in children. While they did not find a significant change at the seven-month follow up, there was still evidence for a positive trend. No significant difference existed among the BAT means of the post-test (m = 28.71, sd = 4.16) and the seven month follow-up post-test (m = 27.87, sd = 4.61). The BAT intervention for the third through sixth grade at the small rural elementary school was effective on long term memory retention.
Faculty Sponsor:
Barati, Angie SN, Jenny Bosley SN, Jennifer Campbell SN, Shannon Gunn SN, Casey Parman SN, Evelyn Brooks RN, PhD.. Is There A Need for Cultural Diversity Education Among Nurses?.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau of 1999, the U.S. population currently consists of 28.1% minorities and 71.9% white or Anglo-Americans. Is is estimated by the year 2050, minority groups will include as much as 48% of the population. These minority groups will consist of Asians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. An article reviewed in the Journal of Holistic Nursing discussed that 4.2% of practicing RN’s in the U.S. are African-American and 2.1% are Hispanic leaving the minority patient to be cared for by Caucasian nurses (Smith, 1994). The aim of the study is to determine whether cultural diversity education is needed among nurses. Data was collected through a questionnaire given to 60 RN’s on two units of a Medical/Surgical floor, with only 10 RN’s responding. Data was also obtained from 28 junior nursing students’ comments following a cultural diversity presentation. Using qualitative analysis, themes that emerged from nursing students were discrimination, diversity, self-reflection, education, values, and communication. Themes for RN’s were diversity, values, communication, resources, prejudice, and experience. Due to only ten of the sixty RN’s responding, this study does not present consensus about cultural issues for RN’s. However, the themes of diversity, communication, and values that emerged from the RN population were consistent with junior nursing students’ themes. Given the results of this study and the increasingly changing population, cultural diversity education needs to be used to enhance nurses’ interactions with the diverse population.
Faculty Sponsor:
Fisher, S. SN; Monical, J. SN; Hardin, J. SN; Swope, G. SN; Brooks, E.L. RN Ph.D.. The Way We Were.
Soaring cost and diminished insurance coverage have played a major role in the changes of nursing care received during the labor, delivery, and postpartum process. Thus especially decreasing the amount of time allowed for stay in the hospital during this process. Using a qualitative questionnaire, perceptions of nursing care were gathered, analyzed, and compared from participants. The aims of this focused study were to (1) describe and evaluate nursing care received during labor, delivery and postpartum process, and (2) to identify concerns of select participants about maternal care received during this process. Data were collected through formal, semi-structured interviews using a qualitative phenomenological approach to capture the lived experiences of 30 participants. Issues that emerged as concerns included; pain management, cost, educational needs, emotional concerns and empathy, and changes in the nursing interventions over time. Participants were concerned about pain management especially benefits and risks; cost of care and insurance; educational needs expectations and clarifications; emotional concerns and empathy in regards to influence on perceptions; and changes in nursing interventions over time and the need for reasoning or explanations of these changes. Additionally, the study describes themes that enhanced or inhibited the participant`s understanding of current maternal nursing care. The themes that emerged from the data were consistent with articles from Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. The information obtained in this study will be used to educate and enhance the perceptions of current nursing practice of maternal nursing.
Faculty Sponsor:
Johnson, Linda, RN; Davison, Mary, SN; Murphey, Jennifer, SN; Wright, Lynette, SN; Brooks, Evelyn, RN, PhD. Post-Mortem Care and Hospital Policy.
The British statesman William Gladstone stated, "Show me the mannner in which a nation of community care for its dead, and I will measure with mathematical exactness the tender mercies of its people, their respect for the law of the land, and their loyalty to high ideals." Post-mortem care is a subject that may or may not be presented in nursing curriculum, but few nurses escape the experience. By understanding appropriate post-mortem care, nurses can be in a better position to address health care of families across the health care continuum. With recent emphasis on the holistic approach to health care, post-mortem care may be influenced by nurses` perception of their tasks as written in the hospital policy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hospital policies and the practicing nurses` knowledge of the policies. Two major research questions guided this study: (1) What are the written hospital policies for post-mortem care?; and (2) What is the perceived role of the nurse in post-mortem care? Forty-six health care providers participated in a verbal interview with questions concerned with the role of health care providers and their understanding of hospital policy. Of the participants, 87% reported that they had participated in post-mortem care, but only 27% reported that post-mortem care may have been included in hospital orientation. In summary, the results of the study will be presented with the anticipation of strengthening hospital policy and education of practicing health care providers.
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Gragg, Karie, SN, Higgins, Kimberly, SN, Hoyt, Carmen, SN, Martin, Jenny, SN, Moore, Jessie, SN, Nuss, Katie, Brooks, Evelyn, RN, PhD.. Lay Health Advisors and Nursing Student Responses to the Pony Express Empowerment Initiative.
Healthy People 2010 has been developed by a partnership between the government and the public. Scientific experts from several federal agencies took the lead in developing the focus areas and objectives. The leading health indicators determined by Healthy People 2010 are aimed at eliminating health disparities in all Americans. Nursing students, education students, and local services agencies partnered together to develop the PEEI workshop for lay health advisors (LHA`s) to address health care needs of the poor and underserved population. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate the effect of the PEEI intervention on LHA`s and nursing students. Data were collected from the LHA`s through three monthly follow-up formal, semi-structured interviews. The data from the junior nursing students was collected from their journal entries. Themes that emerged from the LHA`s include knowledge, beliefs, and empowerment. The participants of the PEEI workshop consistently mention new knowledge that was gained, changes of previous beliefs, and the feeling of empowerment. Additionally, the study describes themes that emerged from the nursing students to be stereotypes, education, and empowerment. The junior nursing students found that old stereotypes were erased, they were able to learn new approcahes to education, and the nursing students felt that they were able to empower the LHA`s with the information that was presented. This project was funded by the Welfare Reform Task Force: Basic Needs Committee, Heartland Regional Community Foundation, Missouri Western State College Foundation and Funding For Results.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psycholgoy

Historical Papers

Domalewski, Sandra. The Historical Treatment of Mental Illness in Women.
Interest in women`s mental illness has exisit over time. This historical paper will look at the diagnosis and treatment of women starting with the 16th century witchcraft to present day.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Baker, Brooklin K.. Moral Reasoning Differences in Delinquents.
Fifty incarcerated delinquents were compared to 54 non-delinquents on moral reasoning level. Delinquent adolescents displayed a significantly lower level of moral reasoning than non-delinquents.
Faculty Sponsor:
DeWitt, Jennifer and Kollanda, Kelly. Does Perceived Intelligence Affect an Individual`s Self-Esteem.
The purpose of this study is to see if perceived IQ will affect an individual`s self-esteem. Participants in this study will estimate their IQ, take a self-esteem survey, and a bogus IQ test. Participants will be randomly assigned to two groups. One group will receive higher than expected IQ scores and the other group will receive lower than expected IQ scores. Participants will then be re-tested on the self-esteem survey. Expected results are that the higher group will have higher self-esteem scores on the second test and the lower group will have lower scores on the second self-esteem test.
Faculty Sponsor:
Harvey, Sean. Music Perception.
. The purpose of the study is to determine if styles of music effect a person’s mood. A survey will be administered to forty individuals, men and women, targeting responses on music and mood. The survey will cover two styles of music and a person’s mood in reference to each style of music. A paired samples T-test will be calculated on the subjects tests scores. The expected results will be that an up-tempo style of music will create an excited mood state and a softer style of music will create a relaxed mood state.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hawman, Janice. The Effect of Sample Ballots on Voting Behavior.
In the 1996 national election, voter participation in the U.S. had dropped to 49%. Researchers believe that low voter turnout can be attributed to low political competence, lack of information about candidates and issues, and lengthy and confusing ballots. These three items can in turn contribute to rolloff, a condition in which voters skip items on the ballot. This study is being conducted to see whether having access to a sample ballot prior to election day will increase voter confidence and encourage voter participation, resulting in higher rates of voter turnout and lower rates of rolloff. Students from 4 classes of Introductory and Intermediate Psychology will participate. Prior to the November 7 election, two classes will receive sample ballots and two classes will not. Following the election, all 4 classes will complete follow-up surveys. Two t-tests will be used: one to determine voter turnout, and one to determine rolloff. It is predicted that having access to a sample ballot will increase participation in voting and decrease rolloff.
Faculty Sponsor:
Leflet, Breann (Faculty Sponsor, Dr. Phil Wann). Characteristics of Effective Teachers: Student and Faculty Perspectives.
The qualities and characteristics of effective teachers have been the subject of many studies in recent years. Few studies, however, have compared student and faculty views of effective teachers. The present study examined the similarities and differences in student and faculty perceptions of the behaviors of effective teachers. In the current study, faculty participants (n=79), first year students (n=190), and senior students (n=58) were surveyed to identify the qualities and behaviors of effective teachers. Respondents were asked to rate 30 characteristics of effective teaching on a scale of one to five, with one being unimportant or irrelevant and five being absolutely essential. Participants were then asked to use the list of characteristics to rank, in priority order, the five most important qualities for a teacher to be effective. Overall, the results of the study indicated that faculty, freshmen and senior students agree on certain core characteristics that are considered essential for effective teaching including being knowledgeable, a good communicator, approachable, a fair evaluator, and respectful of students. However, analyses of variance also indicated that there were significant differences between faculty and student ratings on characteristics such a promoting critical thinking, creative/interesting, challenging, and having realistic expectations.
Faculty Sponsor:
Odom, April S., and Sholtz, Shannon S.. The Reds, Whites, and Blues of Emotion: Examining Color Hue Effect on Mood Tones.
The purpose of this study was to examine color, hues, and mood associations. College students were asked to rate the degree of certain emotions invoked by different colors. Three 3 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA will be calculated to see if there is a significant relationship between the different colors and different color hues on three different emotions. We hypothesize that the colors will be related to certain mood tones and that the primary colors will show a higher degree of emotion than the lighter shades.
Faculty Sponsor:
Rice, Becky and Dyson, Jennifer. Personal Space Invaders.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of personal space in various settings. The experimenters used two high-density places and two low-density places to determine the effects of invading personal space. The expected results are that reactions to the invasion will be more observable in the low-density places as opposed to the high-density places.
Faculty Sponsor:
Shell, Mandy & Duncan, Sheila. The Effects of Personality Similarity Between Supervisors and Subordinates on Job Satisfaction.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between similarity of personality between supervisor and subordinate and job satisfaction. We collected data from retail stores in St. Joseph, Mo. Participants completed a Job Satisfaction Survey and a Big Five Locator personality inventory. Participants were matched with their supervisor for each store. Total personality difference scores between supervisor and subordinate, as well as difference scores for each of the five factors of personality were correlated with the subordinate`s job satisfaction score. We predicted that the more similarity of personality between supervisor and subordinate, the higher the job satisfaction of the subordinate.
Faculty Sponsor:
St. Clair, Angela. The Effects of Music During Apprehension on Memory Performance.
The purpose of this study is to see if music during studying and testing effects performance on a memory test. Four classes will be tested. One class will have music during studying and testing. One class will have no music during studying but music while testing. Another will have music during both. The last class will have no music during studying or testing. Each group will be given a memory test at the beginning of class and will have two minutes to study. At the end of class, they will take the memory test. A 2X2 between subjects ANOVA will be calculated to see if there is a relationship between music and test performance. Expected results are that the class who had no music while studying or testing will score the highest. Music during both will have the next highest scores, while the other two groups will score the lowest.
Faculty Sponsor:
Walters Leslie J.. Dissociative Idenity Disorder Today.
The theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)can be traced back to 4th century B.C.. However, the scientific study began in the 19th century with the men such as Perrier Janet and Sigmumd Freud. Today DID is a contorversial subject.Is the diagnosis of DID only the the ideas of an over zealous therapist or the symptoms of an abusive childhood that could only be escaped through dissociation of the mind?
Faculty Sponsor:

Historical Papers

Baker, Brooklin K.. The History and Development of the Concept of Intelligence.
The history, development, and implementation of the concept of intelligence was reviewed. The debate of the origin of intelligence, whether learned or innate, is presented in addition to the current overall status and projections for the future.
Faculty Sponsor:
DeWitt, Jennifer. The Development of Neurosurgery to Treat Mental Illness.
The purpose of this poster is to give a summary of the development of neurosurgery to treat mental illness. Very primitive forms of brain surgery occured over forty thousand years ago in Neolithic times. It continued through the centuries and was modernized and popularized by Moniz, Watts, and Freeman through wide-spread lobotomies. Current trends are to devlop more presice and less invasive procedures such as radiotactic procedures.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gillahan, Joan. The Misuse of Mental Testing.
Social ranking can be traced as far back as recorded history. For Americans, the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was scarred with this ranking. The study of individual differences was facilitated by the theory of evolution. These studies directly influenced many philosophers and psychologists to mentally test the population in America. It was through mental testing that some saw fit to rank different populations into categories. Mental testing was used to discriminate against blacks, native Americans, immigrants, women, and many underprivileged whites. Many controversies coincide with mental testing. Although some thought intelligence was directly related to socioeconomic factors, many thought intelligence was inherited. It was this hereditary factor that resulted in much of the discrimination. There were those who said intelligence could not be defined and argued that mental testing did not test for intelligence. My paper will address mental testing, its controversies and its use for the purpose of social ranking.
Faculty Sponsor:
Johnson, Heather. History of Insane Asylums.
Mentally ill individuals were first noticed in the Victorian era. The population of the insane grew as the population of the United States increased. The first mental hospitals were established in the 18th century. The 19th century was popular for the development of mental institutions. Dorthea Dix was a popular asylum reformer. More and more hospitals evolved and different methods of treatment were experimented with. The 19th century did a lot for the insane individual. In the 20th century there have been different developments and alternative treatments other than the hospital. Change in the future will depend on the government and what Congress decides to pass.
Faculty Sponsor:
Leflet, Breann. In Search of Intelligence: A History of Testing From 1900 to 1950.
Intelligence is an abstract concept that can not be physically seen or touched and is undeniably difficult to describe and understand. The time period between 1900 and 1950 saw the real emergence in attempts to study, identify, and measure intelligence. This paper will identify individuals who were innovative and who influenced developments in the field of intelligence testing during this time period.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lisa. History o f Asylums and Mental Hospitals.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical analysis of asylums and mental hospitals. There are three areas of research; why the asylum and mental hospitals were invented and what their purpose was, problems associated with asylums and mental hospitals, such as care of the patients and the size and complexity of hospitals, and finally the effects of institutionalization on patients. In conclusion, a current assessment was done on the asylum and the mental hospital concluding how they have evolved over time.
Faculty Sponsor:
Rice, Becky. History of Behavior Modification.
Behavior modification does not have any one single definition. In many areas around the world, the principles of this therapy were all being used. This led to a joining of ideas to create what is now called “behavior modification.” Some key figures in this development include the ideas of B.F. Skinner, John B. Watson, Joseph Wolpe, and Albert Bandura. Behavior modification is one of the fastest growing and most promising fields in psychology. It is widespread and relates to one’s everyday life, which makes it an important area to study.
Faculty Sponsor:
St. Clair, Angela. Granville Stanley Hall.
Stanley Hall made many important contributions to the field of Psychology. His achievements include being the first American professor of Psychology, the first president of the American Psychological Association, which he founded, and a leader of the child study movement. This paper discusses these and other achievements of Hall and how his contributions affect Psychology today.
Faculty Sponsor:
Winget, Angela. The History And Future of Mental Institutions.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the history and future of mental institutions in this nation. The paper discusses the type of people that are placed in mental institutions, the circumstances that led them there, and the treatment that they received in the mental institutions. Bethlehem Royal hospital was the first hospital for the mentally ill in England. This hospital became to be known as Bedlam, because of the harsh treatment that the patients received here. There were many other mental institutions, including those that were established by public charity, privately owned mental institutions, and there were even accommodations built on to the general hospitals. The harsh treatment in these facilities leads us to a very powerful movement, known as the Enlightenment Movement, started by Philip Pinel. Pinel instituted humane reforms in France, which led to his many followers. Pinel inspired William Tuke and Benjamin Rush. The current zeitgeist of the era led to the reformation of asylums. The major contributors to the reformation were Dorthea Dix and Clifford Beers. The establishment of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene brings us into the 20th century. Along with the 20th century brings us the trend of moving patients out of the hospitals and into the communities, which is what we can see happening in our very own community.
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Winget, Angela. A Perspective About Animals.
Animals help form our everyday lives, by taking us outside ourselves and into the here and now of our own being. In earlier times people respected and recognized animals as family, as living relations of the same creation, sharing the same earth. The domestication of dogs happened 100,000 years ago, and begun with the domestication of the wolf. Cats were domesticated about 5,000 years ago. The treatment of these animals vary from culture to culture. Some animals are used for hunting, herding, for no utilitarian purpose at all, and in some places they are even used for food. One may say that the animal-keeping habits of different nations probably plays a large role in the forming of national character. We have been raised by wolves, pulled out of the ocean by dolphins, allowed to walk safely through the lion's den, and even led to safety by animals who appear mysteriously. There is enormous importance in the idea of another species voluntarily defending us, sometimes by giving their life for ours. The purpose of this paper is to portray how animals impact human life.
Faculty Sponsor:
60 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY26
BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY1
CHEMISTRY1
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND DEPARTMENT OF NURSING1
EDUCATION5
NURSING5
PSYCHOLGOY1
PSYCHOLOGY20
EMPIRICAL48
HISTORICAL PAPER10
LITERATURE REVIEW2