Program for the Fall 2001 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF -None-

Empirical Projects

Ralph, Joni. Vocational Rehabilitation: The Effectiveness of Services and Employment Outcomes for Persons with Disabilities.
The discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities, especially in the workplace, is widespread. Depending on the severity and type of disability, discrimination prevents productive citizens from contributing to the economy and earning a livelihood. The lack of employment also keeps some persons with disabilities dependent on public and private programs for survival. In 1998, The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research reported the unemployment rate of the 17.2 million persons with a work disability was 12.3 percent, while the unemployment rate of the 155.3 million people with no work disability was only 4.8 percent. Although the lack of employment opportunities for persons with disabilities is distressing, there are social policies in place that try to address the unemployment issues of persons with disabilities. Vocational rehabilitation services, provided by The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, are designed to help persons with disabilities gain employment skills in fields they feel comfortable in, and in which their disabilities can be accommodated. This legislation has an 80-year history beginning in 1920 with the Smith-Fess Act. The Ticket to Work and Workforce Investment At of 1999 was designed to encourage people who depend on Social Security Disability and Supplemental Security Income to enter the workforce. Incentives, such as extended Medicare and Medicaid Insurance coverage and the elimination of eligibility waiting periods, are being offered to persons with disabilities who enter the workforce. This is a two-part study that examines the outcomes of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, for the state of Missouri. This study also examines the changes in the unemployment rates, from 1995-1999, for persons with disabilities. A group of Missouri Western State College Students, who participate in vocational rehabilitation programs were assessed to determine their satisfaction levels with these programs. Data selection techniques include the analysis of primary and secondary data. Primary data was gathered through structured observation and interviews of program participants. A convenience sampling was used to select 8-10 students at Missouri Western State College, who engage in rehabilitation programs offered by the Department of Primary and Secondary Education, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. The Division of Vocational Rehabilitation administers the programs prescribed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, for Missouri. This data was analyzed to determine the levels of satisfaction the students have experienced with the programs they are engaged in. Secondary data analysis was used to examine program outcomes and the unemployment rates of persons with disabilities, from 1995-1999. Rational analysis was used to interpret the secondary data published in reference to vocational rehabilitation programs offered by the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation in Missouri.
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Historical Papers

Dakon, Sarah. William James and the History of Thought on Emotion.
William James` work has had a profound impact on the way that psychologist view emotions. Charles Darwin laid a foundation that prompted William James to view the emotions as organic processes. James then took these ideas and independently developed an organic theory. Together with work by George Lange, and Alexander Sutherland, this theory has come to be known as the James-Lange theory. It held up from the time it was developed in 1884-1885 until 1929, when it was replaced by Walter Cannon`s article in which he critiqued the James-Lange theory. William James` ideas though, still carry on in the minds of psychologists and are deeply ingrained in scientific thought.
Faculty Sponsor:
Kahler, Nicholas. A Break from Freud: A New Theory.
This paper examines and illustrates the influence that Freud had on Jung in his develpment of his own dream theories. Jung`s theory came about after a direct and deliberate departure from Freudian views. While their research methods remained strikingly similar, they developed very unique ideas about the significance of dreams and how to go about exploring them. Both men focused heavily on the interpretation of their own dreams as a source for their theories and the content of Jung`s personal dreams were a significant influence on his theory.
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DEPARTMENT OF Biology

Empirical Projects

Billups, Heather, Graves, Katie, Hanway, Leonard. Diversity & Abundance of Insects and other Arthropods in Leaf Litter.
In this expeiment, leaf litter samples were collected from two woodland habitats (old field and mature forest) to determine the abundance and diversity of insects and arthropods in them. This was accomplished by collecting leaf samples and drying them in Beralise funnels. The insects that fell into the collecting fluid were sorted and categorized by order. The information was analyzed using ecological quantitative software. No significant differences were found for any of the variables tested. This may be a result of small sample and specimen numbers. From this study there appears to be no significant differences in the arthropods of the two habitats.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brown, Abigail L.. Using DNA Chips to Measure Gene Expression in Yeast.
Drugs that bind in the DNA minor groove have been shown to have antitumor and antimicrobial activity, but their precise mechanisms of action in vivo remain unclear. They are known to prefer A/T rich DNA sequences and to unbend naturally curved DNA. They have also been shown to affect the expression of individual genes as measured by transcription assays. DNA microarray technology is a recently developed analytic tool that is used to measure changes in global patterns of gene expression. The yeast microarrays used in this study consist of every open reading frame from the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and were used to measure the effects of the minor groove-binding drug DAPI on global gene expression. Preliminary results indicate that improvements in the reproducibility and reliability of the data are necessary for accurate interpretation and analysis. The results of these and future experiments have the potential to identify the in vivo targets for DAPI binding, to provide information on its mechanism of action, and to highlight the role on minor groove binding ligands in the control of gene expression.
Faculty Sponsor:
Andy Carmack, Eric Reidlinger, Nicole Frazee. Malaise Trapping.
Entomologists use a variety of different sampling techniques to determine biodiversity studies. We used a malaise trap to find out which microhabitat contained the most species. Trapping two days, through inclement weather, we obtained results that were less than conclusive. We obtained no statistically significant difference between the number of species, or the number of total individuals (Independent t-test, x = 0.05). Simpson and Shannon diversity indices also were not different between the two habitats. We found that there was a statistical significance (x = 0.05) when comparing the number of diptera collected to the number of homoptera collected in both habitats.
Faculty Sponsor:
Stark, Danny and Adam, Christa. Horsing Around in E. coli.
Many things happen as we develop in the womb of our mothers or if you are a chicken in an egg while your mother sits on you. Much like the way chickens eat, the "hunt and peck" method was used for this project. Due to little information being known about the regulation of gene expression in the developing equine (horse) embryo, this project was performed. Day 12 and 15 equine conceptuses were collected and examined for differentially expressed genes. The isolated gene cDNAs were inserted into pCR2.1 plasmid (Invitrogen) and incorporated into Escherichia coli. Currently 50 cDNA sequences, which are newly expressed or up-regulated at Day 15, compared to Day 12, have been determined (Simpson et al., 2000, JRF Suppl. 56:539). The current project continues to examine these differences. To further identify differentially expressed cDNAs from Day 15 and Day 12 horse conceptuses (the hunt) the constructed differentially expressed cDNA library was used. Plasmid colonies were grown on LB-AMP plates and 20 colonies (17 white/3 blue) were isolated. The DNA was purified from the E. coli using the Wizard Plus Minipreps DNA Purification System (Promega). The resulting plasmid samples were examined for inserts using EcoRI digest followed by running samples on a 7% polyacrylamide gel to test the inserts for relative sizes. Confirmed positive samples were prepared for DNA sequencing. Sequencing samples were prepared using a modified protocel of the Miniprep System. Once sequences are determined they will be compared to recorded sequences in GenBank (the peck). This will determine what genes are newly expressed or up-regulated on Day 15 of gestation compared to Day 12 of gestation.
Faculty Sponsor:
Stobaugh, Jeff, Hunthrop, Annette. Sweep net study of Insect Biodiversity.
We utilized sweep netting to find the biodiversity of insects on six different plant species, in a late summer, pre-frost time period. The study concentrated on Sunflowers, Jerusalem Artichoke, Prairie Grass, White Heath Aster, New England (lavender) Aster, and Golden Rod. Our null hypothesis was, that all six different plant species would have little deviation in the biodiversity. We sweep netted, each plant species, repeatedly in a ten stroke back and forth sweeping motion. Then the specimens were euthanized in a bag containing ethyl acetate and then brought back to the lab, sorted and counted. The abundance of insects we observed on any given plant ranged from 1 to 112 individuals per plant. The biodiversity of the study showed a range from the least, one Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) to the most, 144 Hemiptera (Bugs) on the six different plant species.
Faculty Sponsor:
Wigton, Jeffrey; Herrick, Scott. Sperm Contain an Acrosomal Calcium Store that is Established Early in Sperm Maturation.
The acrosome is a secretory vesicle within mammalian sperm that contains a variety of hydrolytic enzymes. The exocytosis of the acrosome’s contents, during a process called the acrosome reaction, is essential for successful fertilization. The acrosome reaction is triggered by an increase in the concentration of cytosolic calcium by mobilization of intercellular stores or influx from extracellular calcium. Using mouse sperm as a model, the purpose of these experiments was to discover if the mobilization of calcium from an intercellular source, specifically from the acrosome, was sufficient to trigger the acrosome reaction in sperm at various stages of maturation since sperm must undergo several maturational changes before they are capable of fertilization. Sperm at different maturation stages were isolated from different regions of the male reproductive tract. Then the sperm were subjected to thapsigargin, a drug that blocks the calcium pump on the acrosome membrane. If calcium is present in the acrosome at the different maturation stages, the calcium would be able to diffuse out into the cytosol thereby triggering the acrosome reaction. Concentrations of 0, .2, 2, 10, and 20 micromolar of thapsigargin were used. The extent of acrosome reacted sperm was recorded at 0, 60, and 120 minutes. At concentrations of 10 and 20 micromolar thapsigargin almost 100 percent of the sperm underwent the acrosome reaction, at all maturation stages tested. At smaller concentrations of thapsigargin the extent of acrosome reacted sperm was less, with an increase at the 2 micromolar concentration. The results of these experiments indicate that the intercellular store of calcium inside the acrosome is present in all the maturation stages examined, and is not established as a result of sperm maturation. Further, we show that mobilization of this acrosomal calcium store is sufficient to trigger the acrosome reaction in the absence of extracellular calcium.
Faculty Sponsor:
Wimberly, Casey and Eckdahl, Todd. Microsatellite Analysis of Micropterus salmoides, Largemouth Bass.
The Missouri Department of Conservation has served recreational fishermen for many years by stocking a popular game fish, the largemouth bass, throughout the state. Since the stocked fish have come from state hatcheries, questions have arisen about the effects of the stocking program on the genetic diversity of natural populations. The current project was done as a first step in the development of tools to assess genetic diversity of largemouth bass populations. It made use of DNA amplification of genetic markers called microsatellites, small tandem repeats of genetic information that can be used as measures of genetic diversity. DNA samples were isolated from fish taken from one hatchery and three reservoirs and subjected to PCR analysis using three different microsatellite loci. The results demonstrate the utility of the method and indicated limited genetic diversity at each of the locations. The methods developed will be used in the future to assess genetic diversity in natural populations of largemouth bass that have been influenced by stocking compared to populations that have not.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Nursing

Empirical Projects

Brown, Dana; Aregbe, Tai; Lewis, Jill; Meng, Eric; Thatcher, Kristin. Effects of Performance-enhancing Drugs on the Athlete.
The choice as to whether or not to use performance-enhancing drugs is becoming increasingly popular among athletes of all ages. In this research utilization of 25 studies, the effects of performance-enhancing drugs on athletes of all ages were examined, including the use/non-use of these substances, attitudes about their use, and the effects of these substances on the body. In most of the studies, creatine and anabolic androgenic steroids were discussed. The use of creatine noted side effects such as diarrhea, muscle cramps, dehydration, and weight gain, with no impairment of renal function. The articles discussing creatine showed an increase in body mass, increased strength and endurance, increased oxygen uptake, increased growth hormone secretion, no fat or protein loss, decreased blood ammonia and uric acid levels, and no increase in performance. The use of creatine was shown to increase with age and grade level, and more boys used creatine than girls. The use of anabolic steroids noted side effects such as testicular shrinkage, gynecomastia, aggressiveness, and increased blood pressure. In the articles discussing steroid use, athletes of all ages were studied, including high school, college, and professional athletes. The likelihood of steroid use was shown to be highest in Caucasian student-athletes as well as those athletes participating in NCAA Division III sports. A majority of the studies discussed the use of injectable steroids. In one study, 75% of steroid users have played football for at least five years. Fifty-nine percent of the football players were on either the offensive or defensive line. There was a noted increase in lean body mass, weight, limb circumference, arm mass, and bone-free mass. Several other studies were researched on Androstenedione, various asthma treatments, and attitudes of drug doping. In one study of Andro, the subjects maintained stable testosterone, estradiol, and estrone levels. Several asthma treatment drugs, Sulmeterol and Fomoterol, were also studied. Sulmeterol showed no difference in lung function or heart rate and was permitted in the Olympics. Fomoterol, however, was shown to provide a slight advantage to performance and was banned from the Olympics. Many coaches were found to allow and even encourage the use of performance-enhancing drugs by their athletes.
Faculty Sponsor:
Chappell, Jennifer, SN; Hurd, Julie, SN; Osmon, Stephanie, SN; Pithan, Marcia, SN; Brooks, Evelyn, RN, PhD. Effects of a Short Term Educational Intervention on Understanding Nutritional Needs for Femal Adolescents.
Chappell, Jennifer SN, Hurd, Julie SN, Osmon, Stephanie SN, Pithan, Marcia SN, Brooks, Evelyn, RN, PhD. Effects of a Short Term Educational Intervention on Understanding Nutritional Needs for Female Adolescents Department of Nursing Using General Systems Theory to guide the study, the purpose of the descriptive correlational study was to determine the effects of a nutritional education teaching intervention with a convenience sample of female adolescents (n=86) with age range, 12-18 years, from a rural elementary school. In the spring of 2001, female adolescent students were given a pre-test designed and administered by Missouri Western Nursing Students, prior to the educational intervention. Immediately following the two- hour intervention, a post-test was administered. A paired-sample T-test was calculated comparing the test scores of the subjects of pre-test and post-test. A significant difference was found (p<. 000). The mean score of pre-test (m=10.21, sd=3.63) and post-test (m=15.71, sd=3.57). The intervention was based on the information provided by Healthy People 2000, which expressed a need to increase the number of adolescent girls receiving education about the benefits of intake of calcium, iron and folic acid.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dyson, R. SN; Hartman, K. SN; Sitherwood, K. SN; Spainhower, S. SN; Brooks, E. RN, Ph.D.. Can a healthcare technology camp affect adolescent`s values and beliefs about healthcare as a profession?.
There is a growing nursing shortage that is facing the health care profession. This decline is not centered to a specific area; it includes all fields and all levels of expertise. The studies revolve around several influencing factors including the age of the nursing population, short supply of younger generations choosing nursing as a career, and wider career span for women. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine how to positively influence adolescent’s beliefs and values regarding health care careers, and (2) to determine how adolescent’s views may or may not change after participating in a health care technology camp, and (3) to determine the possible interventions to improve the nursing shortage. Data was collected from 28 adolescents that participated in the health care technology camp. Participants were asked to respond to the Attitudes, Values and Beliefs of the Public in Indiana Toward Nursing as a Career questionnaire as well as respond to specific questions each day. Using qualitative and quantitative data the pre and post-test scores of how participants view health care as a career were compared. Analysis included correlation and paired sample t-test. It was noted with intervention that the most significant categories were nursing activity role, how nursing is evaluated by others, and power. Respectively the significant differences were p=.000; .013; and .027. Results included that 57% of the participants felt that job shadowing was the biggest influence on their values and beliefs towards health care. The pretest indicated that 72% of the participants wanted to pursue a career in the healthcare field, the post-test indicated that 82% of the participants wanted to pursue a career in the healthcare field after participating in the healthcare technology camp. The qualitative information obtained determined that a majority of the participants enjoyed the job shadowing. Comparing the pre-test and post-test, the scores determined a majority of the participants want to pursue a career in the healthcare field. The information obtained from this study will be used to determine whether a health care technology camp will improve the values and beliefs of adolescents regarding the healthcare profession.
Faculty Sponsor:
Jackson, Jennifer; McClintock, Janna; Coulter, Erin; Huskamp, Chad; Voelkel, Roger; Brooks, Evelyn. Measuring Outcomes of an Intra Operative Nursing Elective Course.
Jackson, Jennifer BS, SN, McClintock, Janna SN, Coulter, Erin SN, Huskamp, Chad SN, Voelkel, Roger RN, Brooks, Evelyn RN, PhD.. Measuring Outcomes of an Intra Operative Nursing Elective Course. Department of Nursing Literature elaborating on the issue of the shortage of registered nurses in specialty care areas suggests the significance of this research project. Buerhaus, Staiger, and Auerbach (2000) testify that the shortage of registered nurses is experienced in all areas of hospitals, but that the shortage is more intense in specialty areas such as the operating room. Three purposes guided this study: 1) to promote the level of understanding and knowledge of nursing students caring for intra operative patients, 2) to assess whether a concentrated time in the operating room would improve aseptic techniques transferable to all areas of nursing, and 3) to explore in depth an interest in operating room nursing and nurse anesthesia specialties. The intervention used in this study consists of offering nursing students (n=8) a three-hour intra operative nursing elective course, which involves 19 classroom contact hours, 12 laboratory contact hours, and 66 clinical contact hours. Members of the comparison group (n=8) who did not participate in the elective course were matched by GPA and program semester with the experimental group. Results include an increased perception of ability to perform specific nursing skills in the students who completed the elective course compared to their perception before completing the course and compared to students who did not participate in the course. Results also comprise of a decreased occurrence of contamination while practicing sterile technique in the students` posttests compared to the occurrence in their pretests and compared to students in the comparison group. Using a quasi-experimental design, pre and post test data were collected from an experimental group along with post-test data from a comparison group to evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative education as it is related to students` perceived ability to perform specific nursing skills and competency in sterile technique.
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Literature Reviews

Anderson, Andrea SN, Grady, Beth SN, Iboaya, Erums SN, Ramsey, Aimee SN, and Brooks, Evelyn RN, PhD.. Effects of Antioxidants and Cancer.
It is estimated that there will be 1,268,000 new cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States in 2001 (Cancer Statistics, 2001). The purpose of this study is to determine if the research supports or contradicts the effects of antioxidants as a preventive cancer measurement. Twenty-eight research studies were reviewed dating from 1998 to 2001. Of the fifteen antioxidants researched the most information was found for Vitamins A and E, and Selenium. Some articles discussed just one antioxidant while others reviewed many different antioxidants related to a certain type of cancer. The following results related to antioxidant use and cancer prevention respectively show supported use, refuted use, and both: Vitamin A - 10, 11, 0; Vitamin C - 5, 0, 0; Vitamin E - 14, 2, 0; alpha-carotene - 3, 2, 0; beta-cryptoxanthin - 2, 2, 0; Lutein - 2, 2, 0; Lycopene - 4, 2, 0; Selenium - 11, 1, 1; Green Tea - 4, 1, 1; Fiber - 0, 2, 0; Calcuim - 2, 0, 0; Zinc - 4, 0, 0; Retinol - 2, 1, 0; Garlic - 1, 0, 0; Folate - 0, 1, 0; Totals - 64, 27, 2; Percent - 68.8%, 29.0%, 2.2%. The results of this study both supported and refuted the effects of antioxidants and the prevention of various types of cancers.
Faculty Sponsor:
Horn, Angela, Ayuk, Margaret, McCamy, Jennifer, Rogers, Amy, and Lumb, Jeff. Effects of Soy Protein on Menopausal Women.
Horn, Angela, Ayuk, Margaret, McCamy, Jennifer, Rogers, Amy, and Lumb, Jeff. Effects of Soy Protein on Menopausal Women Research Utilization of 27 studies was used to determine the positive and negative effects of soy protein on symptoms of pre and postmenopausal women. In research studies, the effects of soy protein consumption in the pre- and postmenopausal women are inconclusive with regards to the benefits and side effects. Topics were consistently measured in five areas, including physical menopausal symptoms (i.e. hot flashes and percent body fat), hematology effects (i.e. HDL and LDL), menopausal psychological symptoms (i.e. libido and mood swings), nutrition (i.e. nutrients and dietary fiber), and estrogenic effects (i.e. breast and cancer). The range of soy protein intake for all studies ranged from low soy protein preparation to high soy protein preparation; soy preparation includes supplements, powders, and muffins. Results were inconclusive, indicating a need for further study.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Bailey, Rachel. The Effects of Highlighting on Long-Term Memory.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of highlighting on long-term memory. College students were given a packet containing an article to be read, a distracter task, and fill in the blank questions about the item read. Half of the subjects recieve reading material that contained half of the answers to the questions highlighted. The other half recieved no markings on their text. Independent t tests and an ANOVA will be conducted to look at the effects of highlighting on long-term memory.
Faculty Sponsor:
Cochran, April. Stress Related to College Students with Jobs.
The purpose of this study was to find if college students holding jobs were likely to be more stressed than college students not working. It is expected that students with jobs will be more stressed than students without. I assume that the degree of stress will correlate with the amount of hours worked and the amount of college credits enrolled in.
Faculty Sponsor:
Conroy, Craig. The Effect of Age on Bilateral Transfer.
This experiment was conducted to examine the effect age has on bilateral transfer. In this study, young-age adults and middle-age adults were compared. Each group consisted of ten subjects, half female, and half male. Each participant completed a mirror tracing exercise using a mirror tracing apparatus. It was hypothesized that the middle-age group would out perform the young-age group.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dalrymple, Jennifer. Cooperative Learning and Grades.
I conducted a study to see if studying in groups would improve a students grades. My hypothesis is that it would improve students grades. I asked various Missouri Western State College students to fill out a survay asking them if they studied in a group for exams or if they think that studying in a group helped their exam scores. What I found was that there is no significant difference in a persons grade whether a they study in a group or studied independentally.
Faculty Sponsor:
Deems, Deborah A.. The Effect of Sound On Reading Comprehension and Short-term Memory.
There are students of all ages that study with music in the background. So, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sound on reading comprehension and short-term memory. 42 high school freshman students consisting of 15 males and 27 females of Penney High School in Hamilton, MO were selected to take a reading comprehension and short-term memory test. Three of six study hall classes were selected to participate in the study. One group was tested with no sound, one group with tested while listening to the sound of mountain streams, and the last group was tested while listening to rock music. The results were all calculated using 3x2 between subjects ANOVA. After looking at the results, the only significance was the students that normally study with music scored on an average higher than students that did not normally listen to music while studying. This study concurs with Etaugh and Michals (1975) who found that college students who normally listened to music while studying did better on the reading comprehension test.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hutchings, Melissa J. and Phillips, Tia R.. The Effect of Pet Ownership on Overall Health.
The effect of pet ownership on the overall health of individuals was studied. A survey, assessing health, was administered to 26 individuals, consisting of pet and non-pet owners. It is expected that the surverys completed by pet owners will show a higher overall health score than those completed by non-pet owners.
Faculty Sponsor:
Ingram, Amber. The Influence of Birth Order on Anxiety.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between birth order and anxiety. Students from a General Psycholgy course were asked to fill out a survey measuring anxiety. Each student was also asked to indicate which birth position they were born in. It was predicted that oldest children were more likely to to be anxious than middle, youngest, and only children.
Faculty Sponsor:
Koslosky, Jennifer. Happiness, How Our Environment Affects Our Well Being and Performance.
The purpose of this study was to show how a person`s environment could affect their performance. To show this, four different class of psychology 101 and 200 class were used. The students had to watch a short ten minute video and then take a math test. There were two different videos used, one a cartoon and the other an account of September 11th. Two of the classes were told their test scores would count toward their grade in the class, and the other two were told the test scores did not count for anything. All of these variables were used to alter the participants moods.
Faculty Sponsor:
Old, Susan. The Keyword Method Applied to Root-Learning of Vocabulary.
This study investigated the effectiveness over time of two different versions of the keyword method of learning vocabulary. One group connected a new word to an unrelated keyword using a mental image, while the other group linked the words through their roots. It was found that the type of keyword used did not significantly affect acquisition or retention rates.
Faculty Sponsor:
Parks, Michael. Does the Music we Listen to Correlate with our Level of Introversion or Extroversion?.
The purpose of this experiment is to see whether or not there is a relationship between a person`s musical preference and their level of introversion or extroversion. For this experiment, 26 Psychology 101 students were given a survey on introversion and extroversion. They were also given a musical preference sheet and heard examples of each of the 10 musical genres that were represented on the scale. They then rated each genre in order of preference. A one way ANOVA will be done to analyze the results and see if there is a significant relationship between a person`s musical preference and their level on the introversion-extroversion scale.
Faculty Sponsor:
Robinson, Julia. The Effects of Massage On the Physical Symptoms of Academic Stress.
Touch is one of the oldest medical treatments known to man. This study was conducted to record any effects massage may have on the physical symptoms of academic stress. Six participants recieved timed examinations to create academic stress and then pulse, respiration and hand temperature were recorded. Each participant was placed in the group control having a 15 minute rest and the experiment group of recieving a 15 minute massage. A timed examination was given again and the physical stress symptoms were recorded. Analysis of data showed pulse rates decreased by 19 seconds after the massage.
Faculty Sponsor:
Roesler, Lisa. An Analysis of Stress Symptoms and Their Relation to Sex and Age.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between stress symptoms, age, and sex. A pen and paper survey was given to approximately 65 participants. The survey included 20 symptoms of stress and asked the participants to rate how often they experience the symptoms when they are under stress, if at all. After an analysis of the data, it is expected there will be an indirect correlation between age and stress symptoms. It is also expected that the analysis will show females experience more stress symptoms than males. An interaction between sex and age is also expected. Results from studies about stress can help improve treatments for people who suffer from extreme anxiety or exhibit excessive stress symptoms frequently.
Faculty Sponsor:
Row, Amy G.. Birth Order and Intelligence: Is There a Relationship?.
This study looked at the effect of one`s birth position on his or her intelligence level. 50 students at Missouri Western State College participated by completing an intelligence test. A one way ANOVA will be done. It is expected that only children and oldest children will have a slightly higher score on the intelligence test than the middle children or youngest children.
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DEPARTMENT OF psychology

Empirical Projects

Smith, Wesley. The effects of visual cues on racial stereotypes.
The purpose of this study was to discover if giving people a double stereotype about a person would increase to the likelihood that stereotypical views would be exposed. It was expected that I would find a stereotypical view shown more readily in incidents where a double stereotype was given.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Meredith, T. A.. Does Our Level of Attractiveness Shape Our Perceived Personality?.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether others perceive our personality according to our level of attractiveness. It is hypothesized that physically attractive people are more often associated with positive personality traits than non-attractive people. The difference between how men and women view attractiveness is also examined. In the study, 42 college students in a chemistry class were given a survey. The survey pictured three males with varying levels of attractiveness and 6 descriptions of positive, negative and neutral personality traits. The students then matched the personality trait they thought best described each of the three pictures. Male college students viewed both the unattractive and attractive male photos more negatively than the women. A significant difference appeared when the men viewed the neutral male photo more positively than the women. This significant finding may be due to same sex leniency. The men in the study may view themselves as average looking and therefore be more accepting and more positive when it comes to rating the attractiveness of other average looking men.
Faculty Sponsor:
Twyman, Shelly. The Effect of Low Self-esteem on Body Alterations.
The purpose of this experiment is to determine weather or not there is a positive relationship between a person with low self-esteem and the number of body alterations they have. The dependent variable is the number of body alterations a person has and the independent variable is their level of self-esteem. I believe this experiment will show that people with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in, or possess body alterations, than a person with high levels of self-esteem.
Faculty Sponsor:
West, Jamie L. and Cronk, Brian. Personality research on the Internet: A comparison of web based and traditional instruments in take-home and in-class settings.
Students, faculty, and researchers are increasingly comfortable with the Internet, and many are interested in using the web to collect data. Few published studies investigate the differences between web based data and data collected with more traditional methods. This study crosses two important factors to investigate these potential differences: whether the data are collected on-line or not, and whether the data are collected in a group setting or individually. Using the Visions of Morality scale (Shelton & McAdams, 1990) participants were assigned to one of four conditions: in-class web survey, in-class paper and pencil; take-home web survey and take-home paper and pencil. A 2x2 factorial ANOVA revealed no significant differences between scores of morality across survey mode. A chi-square test of independence was also calculated, comparing the response rate of all four conditions. A significant interaction was found indicating participants in the take home web condition were less likely to complete the instrument. Implications for further research are given as well as application of findings.
Faculty Sponsor:

Historical Papers

Albers, David. The mind, does it exist? An exploration of Cartesian duality and the Zen philosophy of the mind..
This paper will address the conceptualization of the mind as proposed by Rena Descartes. It will compare the mind conceptualization of Descartes with the philosophy offered by Zen in general and Takuan Soho specifically. It will further propose that the mind or ego as we have thought of it since Descartes, is not inherent within our human nature. Rather it is a socially learned construct that must be overcome in order to allow us to achieve enlightenment.
Faculty Sponsor:
Bailey, Rachel. The Development of Erich Fromm`s Psychoanalysis.
Erich Fromm was influenced by different individuals in his revision of psychoanalysis. Along with the zietgeist, Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx had significant influence on Fromm. This paper looks at how these three factors shaped Erich Fromm`s revision of psychoanalysis.
Faculty Sponsor:
Berry, Winter. Carl Rogers and Client-Center Therapy.
Carl Rogers was the most influential person in humanistic psychology (Smith, 1982). Starting with his childhood and growing up with his parents had help influence him with the up bringing of client-center therapy. Rogers came a long ways to finding out what he really wanted to do with his life. However, when he began working with delinquent children, he then found interest in clinical psychology. From there on, Rogers had found that when he was counseling others, it was important for his clients to feel acceptance. He came up with ways of how a therapist should treat and influence their clients. He then develops client-center therapy, and encourages others to do as well. Some of his therapy techniques had such positive results, that using client-center therapy had positive effects on clients seeking counseling. Rogers had enjoyed counseling others and making them feel as though they were a real person.
Faculty Sponsor:
Bray, Brandy M.. Frederic Bartlett and his Schema Theory.
Sir Frederic Bartlett’s concept of schema theory has had a significant impact on cognitive, experimental, social, and cultural psychology. I will explore Bartlett’s background, research on memory, and the principles contributing to his schema theory. The purpose of this paper was to describe how different individuals influenced Bartlett and to help readers understand his schema theory and the impact it has had on cognitive psychology, as well as other areas.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dalrymple, Jennifer. Konrad Lorenz.
Konrad Lorenz was interested in the behavior of animals and humans and developed two major theories, the theory of aggressiveness and the theory of instinct. He studied the social behavior of animals and won a Nobel Prize in 1973 for this work. He studied the reproduction and over-population of animals and humans. He was also interested in imprinting or the programmed learning of animals. Konrad Lorenz is not one of the most well known psychologists but he contributed a lot to the field of psychology.
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Deems, Deborah. The Parallelism Between Hypnosis and Multiple Personality.
Multiple personality and hypnosis share a long history that seems to intertwine with each other. Their histories can be traced back to the 1600’s. At one point in time, both multiple personality and hypnosis were considered altered states of consciousness and yet clinicians used hypnosis to treat multiple personality. This paper will take a look at the history of the two states of consciousness and how their theories changed with the development of new understandings of how the body works.
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Robin Elkthunder. Contributions of Abraham H. Maslow.
Abraham H. Maslow (1908-1970) is considered to be the founder of humanistic psychology. The concepts of self-actualization, the needs hierarchy and peak experience were all articulated by Maslow and became the founding principles of the humanistic model. Maslow`s writings became known as the Third Force Psychology and consist of important insights into issues and controversies that are of continuing interest in psychology.
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Frisbie, Joy. William James Theory of Emotion.
William James` book The Principles of Psycholoyg, published in 1890, had a great impact on psychology and how it was viewed. James` theory of emotion is sometimies hard for people to grasp because from a common sense perspective, it doesn`t sound right at all. Therefore, individuals find it hard to understand. In my paper, I will first explain his background and who he found to be inspirational. Then, discuss the origin of his theory and how he got the idea and what made him interested in that. In addition, I will mention how it has influenced the history of psychology today and what resulted from his findings. Also, I will review what other authors, presently think of his work.
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Howery, Twila. Dorothea Lynde Dix: 19th Century Reformer.
Dorothea Dix was a 19th century school teacher/ humanitarian and social reformer, who worked for over 40 years to improve conditions for the mentally ill. Her contributions to psychology were the turning point in the history of the treatment of the mentally ill. Influenced by Horace Mann, and followed by Clifford Beers, she continues to be a role model for individuals who wish to effect social change.
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Hrenchir, Jami. Posession: A Historical Overview.
Since Biblical times belief in possession has existed. For many centuries, abnormal behavior was attributed to supernatural or diabolical influences. Popular historical accounts maintain that from ancient times until the scientific revolution, mental illness was viewed only from this perspective and that a lack of natural causation led to the persecution of many innocent people. However, recent historians have claimed that this portrayal contains many inaccuracies. Today, the struggle between natural and supernatural causation of "possession" still exists. This article examines this struggle in relation to the time period, from ancient times to the present.
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Hull, Pamela K.. The Contributions of Mary Whiton Calkins in the Field of Psychology.
The purpose of this paper is to follow the contributions of Mary Whiton Calkins in the field of Psychology. I will begin with her works with William James. I will discuss her standing on self-psychology as being introspection psychology. Miss Calkins points of view of Raymond Wheeler’s ‘The Action Consciousness’ and also the work of Elizabeth Amen’s Experimental Study of the Self in Psychology will be discussed in my paper. I will include those that influenced her studies and some of the many that have been influenced by her.
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Huseman, Carol. Sigmund Freud and His Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud revolutionized the field of psychology with his psychoanalytic theory. He put an entirely new perspective on therapy with his free association techniques, and his observation notes give good insight into human behavior. Freud is highly criticized for his work for its high sexual content, however, he has left more of a mark on this world than any other theorist.
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Hutchings, Melissa J.. The History of Histrionic Personality Disorder: The Influence of Jean-Marin Charcot.
Jean-Martin Charcot was the first to discover histrionic personality disorder, as we know it today, and the first to recognize the disorder among men. Charcot was the first to study hypnosis and later use it as a form of treatment for hysteria. Freud studied under Charcot, later developing his own theories and expanding on Charcot`s hypnosis theory, as well as founding free association as a successful means of treatment in many cases of hysteria.
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Keim, April. John Bowlby and the Development of Attachment Theory.
This is a historical account of attachment theory based on the work of John Bowlby. Its developmental history begins with his budding interest in early family relationships as the cause of emotional disturbances. A series of three, now classic papers, presented in the late 1950`s and early 1960`s lays the basic foundation for attachment theory. The theory draws on basic concepts from several different areas such as developmental psychology, ethology, and information processing. The culmination of his work and the theory, as we have come to know it today, is presented in his attachment trilogy, Attachment, Separation, and Loss.
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Kirkweg, Sara. John Locke`s Influence on Psychology.
John Locke was a 17th century British philosopher who greatly influenced psychology. His book, Essay on Human Understanding, explains his theories on human knowledge and mental processing. Wilhelm Wundt, Franz Gall and many other psychologists have benefited from the principles in this book.
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Koslosky, Jennifer. The Conditioning of Maladaptive Behaviors Using Aversion Therapy..
Aversion therapy is one of the three most commonly used methods of behavior therapy. It is used by presenting an aversive (punishing) stimulus with a positive stimulus to try to change a response, or an inappropriate behavior that may be detrimental to a person. This paper reflects the start of aversion therapy through behavior modification and behavior therapy, beginning with the research done by Ivan Pavlov. His writings influenced the thought of aversive conditioning and it is used today in peoples` everyday lives.
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Shell, Mandy. A Historical View of Atkinson`s Theory of Achievement Motivation.
A historical account of John Atkinson’s Theory of Achievement motivation is given. Specific components of the theory explained are the tendencies to approach success, the tendencies to avoid failure, and the resultant achievement motivation. Raynor’s extension of Atkinson’s theory is described. Cognitive theories that replaced Atkinson’s are also discussed with an emphasis on the similarities between the new theories and the original. A discussion is also made about how Atkinson’s theory contributed to the achievement goal framework.
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Phillips, Tia. The History of Lobotomy and the Contributions of Walter Freeman to the Field of Psychosurgery.
The history of lobotomy is discussed with an emphasis on the contributions of Dr. Walter Freeman, who was the foremost proponent of lobotomy in the United States. Highlights of his life, along with the rise, height and fall of lobotomy were studied, and an attempt has been made to present as holistic account of these events as possible.
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Ritter, Michael. Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Albert Ellis is one of the founding fathers of the cognitive-behavioral movement that began in the United States in the late 1960s. He is currently a practicing therapist, author, and public speaker. The current paper will provide a thorough overview of the prevailing zeitgeist that foreshadowed the cognitive revolution. The paper will also focus on the philosophical underpinnings and childhood experiences that influenced Ellis’ theory of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Practical applications will be discussed as well as the current and future status of REBT as a theory and as a therapy.
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Robinson, Julia. Phrenology in America.
Created by Franz Gall and brought to America by Johann Spurzheim, phrenology made a huge impact on the American culture. Phrenologic readings were seen in everyday life and effected the fields of socio-economic growth, education and the welfare of the mentally ill.
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Roesler, Lisa. An Historical Examination of the Study of Emotion.
Humans have been questioning the origins and causes of emotion since Descartes. This facination people have with emotions has created many interesting theories and experiments that explore the causes of emotion, the expressions of emotion, and the bodily changes that accompany emotions. This paper will examine various theories of emotion. The paper will begin with Charles Darwin and will also cover the James-Lange theory of emotion, the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, the appraisal theory of emotion, and the two-factor theory of emotion. As each theory is covered, the examination will also look at influences and if the theory was a product of a great person or the time. Possible directions for future research will also be mentioned.
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Sholtz, Shannon. Theodore Newcomb’s Contributions To Social Psychology.
Theodore Mead Newcomb had a great impact in the field of social psychology. After receiving his doctorate in 1929 at Columbia University, Newcomb eventually was appointed to the sociology and psychology departments at the University of Michigan. It was there that he help found the doctoral program in social psychology by integrating the behavioral concepts of sociology and psychology, emphasizing the social nature of the field. During his time at Michigan and Bennington College, Newcomb wrote a text on social psychology and conducted many studies focusing on social relations in real settings. At Bennington, Newcomb investigated the attitudes and values in students as they completed their education. Newcomb studied other institutional settings as well, such as correctional facilities and their influences on youth. Newcomb also developed a balance theory of two-person interaction based on the consistency of the attitudes of the individuals toward each other and a common object. Newcomb’s contribution to psychology was his belief that there are concepts that can neither be explained by psychology nor sociology, but by social psychology.
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Sword, C. Leigh. Views on Animal Consciousness Through the Years: From Rene Descartes to the Present..
This paper describes several people’s views on animal consciousness. From Rene Descartes to more recent researchers, most views have been on one of two sides (yes, it exists or no, it does not) of the debate. Some people do believe self-awareness is at different levels for different animals. The question of animal consciousness has become another psychological disagreement, and psychologists may never come to an agreement. This paper addresses the hypothesis that no one can say for sure that animals have consciousness, because there is not a direct way to test “consciousness.”
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Vogel, Heather. Hypnosis.
Modern hypnosis began in the 18th century and is still widely used as a form of therapy today. The major theorists of the hypnotic era debated against one another but ultimately influenced each other`s ideas. The current debate about hypnotism is the question of whether or not what is said while under a hypnotic trance is a true belief or a thought that is created due to the mere suggestion of the hypnotist. Because of questions such as this one, hypnotism plays an important role in psychology and influences the way the human race perceives thoughts and behaviors.
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West, Jamie L.. Harry Stack Sullivan and the New School of Psychoanalysis.
Harry Stack Sullivan contributed greatly to the field of psychiatry and the study of schizophrenia. Influences from other disciplines as well as collaboration with other colleagues, prompted Sullivan to incorporate the effect of cultural and environmental factors into mental illness. Known as a psychiatrist for most of his career, Sullivan considered himself a social psychologist in later years and his work justifies this. I will examine his journey from childhood to his adult life as this bears great importance on the development of his ideas. I will also look at the influence of other colleagues from his school of thought as well as those from other disciplines. I will show how he still is influencing the field of psychiatry and psychology today.
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Literature Reviews

Bray, Brandy M.. Frederic Bartlett and his Schema Theory.
Sir Frederic Bartlett’s concept of schema theory has had a significant impact on cognitive, experimental, social, and cultural psychology. I will explore Bartlett’s background, research on memory, and the principles contributing to his schema theory. The purpose of this paper was to describe how different individuals influenced Bartlett and to help readers understand his schema theory and the impact it has had on cognitive psychology, as well as other areas.
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59 submissions listed.
-NONE-3
BIOLOGY7
NURSING6
PSYCHOLOGY43
EMPIRICAL29
HISTORICAL PAPER27
LITERATURE REVIEW3