Program for the Fall 2003 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF Biology

Empirical Projects

Bradford, Dan. Genetic Differences Between Natural and Hatchery-Raised Paddlefish.
Measurement of the genetic differentiation between natural populations of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, is important to the conservation of this threatened species. In addition, knowledge of the genetic relationship between natural and hatchery-raised paddlefish could aid in the management of populations. Characterizing members of different populations of fish had not been possible prior to recombinant DNA technology. In this experiment, we are attempting to determine differences between selected natural and domestic paddlefish. Polymorphisms will be determined using the noncoding sequences of mitochondrial DNA. In particular, a 900 base pair sequence between the phenylalanine and proline tRNA genes is being investigated. The sequence has been amplified using PCR and isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The PCR DNA products have been introduced into E. coli via a plasmid vector. Cloned DNA will then be sequenced to reveal differences between individual paddlefish.
Faculty Sponsor:
Barkman, Katie. Optimal Dosage of Tricaine Methanesulfonate for Zebrafish.
Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) is one of the most used compounds for anesthetizing fish. Since zebrafish are commonly used in the laboratory, obtaining the optimal dosage per gram of fish of the anesthetic MS-222 is beneficial so that experimental results are not skewed by the fish undergoing stress and so that experimentation is ethical and humane. The ideal dosage is one that causes a rapid induction time to complete anesthesia but a moderate recovery time. This allows for experimentation to be performed on the fish while they are still completely anesthetized. This experiment tests three concentrations of MS-222 (.282 mg/L, .423 mg/L, .563 mg/L per gram of fish) with the hypothesis being that .432 mg/L is the optimal dosage.
Faculty Sponsor:
Barkman, Katie; Bundy, Kendra (Faculty Collaborators: Baker, J.C.; Ashley, D.C.). Evaluation of Commercially Available Canine Parasite Diagnosis Products for Use in the Laboratory Component of a Medical Parasitology Course.
Offering informative lab courses that are applicable to today’s world is an important feature of MWSC’s science curriculum. The goal of this project was to evaluate commercially available laboratory products used for canine parasite diagnosis, for incorporation into a college level Medical Parasitology course. Parameters for evaluating the products included academic pertinence, availability of necessary resources, and constraints concerning time and finances. Tests were performed using three products. One product tests for intestinal parasites found within fecal specimens, another product tests blood samples for the presence of a specific antigen produced by heartworm microfilaria, and the final product tests blood samples for intact heartworm microfilaria. Preliminary results show that each product is promising for inclusion in a Medical Parasitology course.
Faculty Sponsor:
Barslou, Lisa. Effects of the Herbal Supplement Ephedra on Zebrafish Heart Rates.
With the constant pressures of society, Americans feel the need to be thin more than ever. Many people have turned to the herbal supplement known as ephedra. Ephedra is taken most commonly for weight loss and energy enhancement; however, the safety of this product has been questioned due to numerous reports of adverse cardiovascular effects such as hypertenion, stroke, and seizure. In this experiment, zebrafish will be placed in a 5x10-7% solution of ephedra. Heart rates will be measured. Death of the fish will also be noted.
Faculty Sponsor:
Carmack Andy, Ashley David, Chevalier Cary, and Durbian Frank. BURROW METRICS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF BURROWS ASSOCIATED WITH BURROWING CRAYFISH ON NATIVE TALLGRASS PRAIRIES IN NORTHWEST MISSOURI..
Eastern massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catentatus catenatus), a state endangered species and federal candidate species, utilize crayfish burrows as hibernacula. Rattlesnake populations at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (SCNWR) do not appear to be evenly distributed across the available mesic and wet prairie habitat during spring emergence suggesting that burrow density and distribution may play a factor in snake distribution. In order to begin understanding the importance of burrow distribution and density, relative to snake distribution, we investigated the geo-spatial distribution of crayfish burrows at five different locations on SCNWR. These locations represent areas known to be utilized as hibernacula by snakes. Five replicate circular plots (5m dia.) were established at each of the 5 locations. We located crayfish burrows using GPS and developed a geo-spatial map using GIS. In addition, we recorded burrow entrance diameter and height. Mean entrance diameter was 3.33 cm (SD = 0.96) and mean burrow height was 0.4cm (SD = 1.76). We found no statistical differences in entrance diameter among burrows from four locations but entrance diameter of burrows from location 5 were significantly larger (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than the rest. Mean burrow densities per location varied from 0.1 burrows per square meter to 0.8 burrows per square meter. Locations 1, 2 , and 5 did not differ from each other and locations 3 and 4 did not differ from each other. However, mean burrow densities at location 3 and 4 were significantly greater than at the other three locations (ANOVA, P < 0.05).
Faculty Sponsor:
Carmack Andy. SETTING UP FISHING REGULATIONS ON A SMALL URBAN LAKE (SIZE REALLY DOES MATTER)..
Bass Lake is a small urban lake located approximately three miles south of Bates City Missouri. This private lake had no previous fishing regulations (size limits or creel limits) prior to this research. I surveyed the population of four different species of fish at this lake over a three-month period. 1)Largemouth Bass (Mircopterus salmoides floridanus) 2) White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis) 3) Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and 4) Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus mystacalis) were the species that were surveyed. Survey information was then analyzed using a program that the Missouri Department of Conservation came up with. Using both RSD and PSD methods, I came up with appropriate fishing regulations that anglers should follow.
Faculty Sponsor:
Coleman, Kendall. Atrazine and its effect on zebrafish development.
Atrazine is arguably the most commonly used herbicide in the United States. About 30,000 tons are applied to agriculture fields in the United States annually to control broadleaf weeds and grasses. It has long been considered a safe chemical because it has a relatively short half-life, has negligible bioaccumulation, and is thought to have few side effects on adult species. There is some scientific evidence suggesting that even at low concentrations, exposure to atrazine, significantly affects the development and contributes to abnormalities of some aquatic species. This paper tests the effects of low level concentrations of atrazine on zebrafish embryos. The results suggest embryos exposed to atrazine concentrations of greater than or equal to .04%, exhibit high mortality or show obvious signs of developmental defects.
Faculty Sponsor:
Conant, Marjie. The effects of Viagra on Zebrafish Embryos.
Viagra is a drug that causes smooth muscle relaxation and enhances the effects of nitric oxide. I am determining if Viagra has an effect on the heart rate of zebrafish embryos. I tested three different concentrations with the largest being the same as a human dose and the smallest at a concentration of 500 ng/mL. The experiment will be run a total of three times. I hypothesize that the Viagra will cause an increase in the heart rate of the embryos. I think the largest impact will be with the least diluted concentration.
Faculty Sponsor:
DeWitte, Sarah. Effects of Iron Concentrations on Zebra Fish Embryos.
Research has shown that high levels of iron can have mortal effects. Iron can be found in water from many sources including: mining, dump site runoff, and hot springs. Previous studies done by Pierson et. al at Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park found the concentration of iron at the top of the drainway to be 9.5 mg/liter. Experiments were performed using 72-hour zebra fish embryos which were exposed to iron solutions of 3 and 4 g/liter. The embryos were checked for mortality after 24 hours and no significant differences were observed between the control group and those exposed to the iron solution. It is therefore proposed that the concentration of iron coming from the hot spring will have no morbid effects on the fish populations.
Faculty Sponsor:
Duane,Brian. The Effects of Ephedra and Caffeine on the Heart Rate of Zebrafish..
Presently there are many people concerned with their apperance, especially their weight. Many people use products that contain ephedra to lose weight or boost their energy level. Zebrafish were tested to see if caffeine and ephedra will effect heart rate. My hypothesis is the addition of ephedra and caffeine will increase the heart rate in zebrafish. The caffeine and ephedra source was from a dietary supplement. One pill was dissolved and the different solutions were tested. Each zebrafish tested was placed in its respective solution for five minutes. I believe that the results will show an increase in heart rate with an increase in the concentration of ephedra and caffeine.
Faculty Sponsor:
Fox, Jim. Maximum Dose Exposure of Zebrafish to Permethrin, a Broad-Spectrum Synthetic Pyethroid Insecticide..
Permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS)-cis, trans-3- (2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate [12]) is a broad-spectrum synthetic pyethroid insecticide, used on a variety of pests and crops. It also controls animal ectoparasites and biting flies. Permethrin, like all synthetic pyethroids, kills insects by strongly exciting their nervous systems, making it hypersensitive to stimuli from sense organs. Permethrin is highly toxic to fish because of the ultra-sensitivity of their nervous system. This experiment attempts to determine the maximum dose exposure Zebrafish can tolerate and still survive, with the hypothesis being that the maximum dose exposure will be 1 part per billion.
Faculty Sponsor:
Freel, Sara. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Development in the Presence of Sevin (Carbaryl Insecticide).
The effects of embryo development when exposed to Sevin have been an interest in research because of the levels of Sevin in groundwater. Sevin is a very common insecticide used to control animals, crops and plants. Traces of Sevin have been found in the ground water of various states including Missouri. The research proposed, hypothesizes that more damaging effects, death, of zebrafish will occur with higher concentrations of carbaryl insecticide.
Faculty Sponsor:
Fry, Jennifer. .
Research indicates that ethanol has one of the most dramatic effects on humans in their first trimester of development. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can cause several developmental problems such as growth retardation, spinal cord disorders and neurological disorders. This disease can even cause defects that could result in death. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to test the level at which ethanol has the most effect on developing embryos. The levels tested will be percent concentrations of ethanol in egg water at concentrations of .5%, 1%, 2.5%,5% and a control of egg water. I hypothesize that the higher the concentration of ethanol that the embryo is exposed to, the more developmental defects and higher mortality rate will occur. I believe that even with the smallest amount of ethanol exposure embryo development will be distorted and the mortality rate will be increased.
Faculty Sponsor:
Furgeson Arley. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) with Zebra fish.
Zebra fish have been used in experiments in several different ways. MSG is a flavor enhancer that is a approved food additive. It is not believed to be dangerous to humans along as it`s in low amounts. MSG in certain concentrations have been tested in rodents and effected the retinas and lead to blindness. I predict using different concentrations of egg water and MSG the Zebra fish should have some type of damage to the nervous system.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gant, Kelly. The Effects Caffeine on Zebrafish.
Caffeine is used in everyday life by a lot of people, but do any think that too much is not good for you? In this experiment, Caffeine was diluted into .01M solution and .001M solutions and zebrafish embryios were tested in the solutions to see how it affected the heart rate and if the concentration was too much for the embryos. Each embryo was placed in the solution to be tested and left for five minutes. The heart rate was then tested, and the results of the caffeine solutions were compared to the results of the standard egg water. I believe the caffeine will raise the heart rate and in the highest concentrations, mortality is a likely in prolonged period of time.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hart, Steven Eckdahl, Dr. Todd. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SUBPOPULATIONS OF EASTERN MASSASAUGA RATTLESNAKES AT SQUAW CREEK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE.
GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SUBPOPULATIONS OF EASTERN MASSASAUGA RATTLESNAKES AT SQUAW CREEK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Steven N. Hart and Dr. Todd Eckdahl Under the supervision of Dr. Todd Eckdahl, Department of Biology, Missouri Western State College, St. Joseph, MO 64507-2294 Abstract: The Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake, Sistrurus catenatus catenatus, is recognized as a species that is 10,000 years old. It has overcome many manmade obstacles. Unfortunately, due to senseless deliberate killing and habitat loss, the Missouri Department of Conservation now lists these beautiful creatures as an endangered species. However, the protected habitat provided by the Department of Conservation at Squaw Creek has resulted in a healthy population of these animals. It has been noticed that the rattlesnakes were dispersing into distinct subpopulations. The worry is that if these subpopulations of snakes geographically separate for a period of time, then the genetic differentiation between them may become too great to allow snakes to be relocated between subpopulations. Also, if snakes are only breeding within their group without the addition of genetic diversity, inbreeding seems inevitable; the effects of inbreeding on a population are catastrophic since inbred offspring are less fit to survive. Since the level of genetic differentiation required for population stability is unknown, a molecular genetics test for genetic polymorphisms in these animals is needed. We have used PCR to measure polymorphisms in microsatellite DNA, amplifying DNA from nucleated erythrocytes. Our preliminary data suggests that genetic differentiation is present in these rattlesnake subpopulations. The data also support the idea that microsatellite DNA analysis is an effective tool in determining genetic vicissitude
Faculty Sponsor:
Hughes,Carmika. The effect Iron will have on the death rate of Zebrafish.
Iron is an essential element that is required for growth and survival. Iron is required for production of hemoglobin and proper transportation of oxygen.Zebrafish were tested to see if iron will effect the death rate.My hypothesis is defects in zebrafish increase proportionately to the amount of iron present. My results indicate that iron does increase the death rate of zebrafish.
Faculty Sponsor:
Kemper, Jennifer. The Effects of Zinc chloride on Zebra Fish () development.
Zinc is an essential mineral that is found in almost every cell, it stimulates the activity of approximately 100 enzymes. Zinc also supports a healthy immune system, is needed for wound healing, maintaining your sense of taste and smell, and for DNA synthesis. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. The effect of high zinc concentrations on embyronic development was assessed by dissolving varying amounts of zinc chloride in the growth medium of . Immediately after fertilization the eggs were collected and placed within the solutions. The embyros were then allowed to mature until hatching, while observations were also made throughout their development. Any mortality and/or teratogenic effects of the zinc were recorded.
Faculty Sponsor:
Khazraeinazmpour Ali. Effect of Thimerosal on Hatching Of The Zebrafish Larvae.
Organic mercurial compounds and thimerosal in specific have been extensively used in human and veterinary vaccines as a preservative against bacterial and fungal contamination. Epidemiological evidence has been presented that increasingly associates thimerosal from vaccines with neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite the primary association of mercury with neurological systems, involvement of other organ systems such as gastrointestinal, respiratory hepatic , immune and renal may also be involved. Toxic and no effect levels of inorganic mercury in hatching and development of zebra fish larvae has been previously reported. Effect of thimerosal levels on hatching of zebra fish larvae, equivalent to those used in most veterinary vaccines are expected to be deteremintal to zebra fish hatching and development. The effect of thimerasol on hatching of the zebra fish larvae at concentration of 0.0005, 0.001 and 0.0025mg/L of thimerosal will be evaluated.
Faculty Sponsor:
McMillian, Jannel. Survival rate of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos when exposed to malachite green.
Malachite green is a textile dye used in clothing and an anti-fungal agent used in fish hatcheries all over the world except in the United States. Malachite green has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug because of its structural similarities to other carcinogenic triphenylmethane dyes and therefore produces a potential human health hazard due to the worldwide usage of this compound. This anti-fungal compound has been found to be highly toxic to mammalian cells at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/mL and can cause liver tumor formation in rats and reproductive abnormalities in rabbits and fish. In this study, zebrafish embryos and effects of different concentrations of malachite green are being looked at based on the survival rate of the embryos subjected to the dye. Preliminary tests show that at 1.25 mg/mL and lower there is survival and at 125 mg/mL and higher there is lack of survival. At the present time, experimentation is ongoing with the concentrations in between to see where survival rate starts and ends.
Faculty Sponsor:
Ostendorf, Christopher. Caffeine affects the metabolic heart rate of zebrafish.
Caffeine has been proven to affect the metabolic heart rate in animals. Most studies have been conducted on humans in variable situations. It is easily accessible and a good product to use on testing zebrafish. Caffeine will increase the metabolic heart rate of zebrafish. Testing solutions were 1mg/mL, 3.5mg/mL, 6.5mg/mL, and 10mg/mL. Each was placed in the solution for five minutes and then observed for heart beats per minute. Results indicate that caffeine does increase the heart rate of zebrafish. As the concentrations of caffeine increased, the heart rate increased proportionally.
Faculty Sponsor:
Sisk, Megan. Effects of Ethanol on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Mortality Rate.
Ethanol has been known to exert a variety of actions on the central nervous system. Zebrafish are widely utilized in studying the developmental biology of humans and can make excellent models for human disease such as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). FAS causes a wide range of problems such as growth retardation, neurological disorders, and spinal cord or facial abnormalities. By studying such developmental conditions in fish, it allows researchers to better understand the condition in humans and identify better ways to treat it. I hypothesize that the greater the concentration of ethanol the embryos are exposed to, the higher the mortality rate will be. Using concentrations of 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, .0625%, and a control of egg water, fish were tested for heart rate after 24 hours of exposure. Given the results of the experiment, it is concluded that ethanol did indeed have a negative effect on zebrafish. There was a direct correlation between increased concentration of ethanol and increased mortality rate. The lowest concentration did have a lower mortality rate than the control, which may be due to a small amount of healthy stress the ethanol invoked. Also, observations were taken of behavior changes and developmental complications.
Faculty Sponsor:
Thomas,Karissa. The effects of epinephrine on a zebrafish`s heart rate.
Epinephrine is a primary transmitter released by postganglionic cells of the vertebrate sympathetic nervous system, which is used by adrenergic neurons. At some synapses epinephrine is excitatory and at others it is inhibitory and its effects depend on the properties of the postsynaptic cell. Epinephrine stimulates he heart rate to increase the strength of contractions and the cardiac output. I hypothesize that by introducing zebrafish to different concentrations of epinephrine no matter the amount will increase their heart rate.
Faculty Sponsor:
Zvolanek, Samantha. Caffeine and It`s Effects on the Heart Rate of Zebrafish Embryos..
Experiments have been preformed on animals, as well as humans, that link the over consumption of caffeine to a high risk of negative effects on pregnancy. In my experiment I will be measuring the heart rates of Zebrafish embryos in increasing caffeine environments to see if the heart rates increase as the concentrations increase. Elevated heart rates over a long period of time cause cardiomyopathy, a condition that causes the heart muscles to stretch and preventing efficient heart contractions. If caffeine causes heart rate to increase, and is consumed at high doses during pregnancy, this may cause a negative long term effect on the pregnancy and even the neonate.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Computer Science, Mathematics, and Physics

Literature Reviews

Barnet, T.J.; Boyd, Amanda; Carroll, Nicole; Crosser, Brandon; Davis-Mead, Liam; Hughes, Randy; Hunt, Rachel; Mauzey, Misty; Paden, Melissa; Palaia, Lindsay; Partch, Valerie; Piper, Roman; Pruett, Jan. Tidbits of Geometries.
Student in the Topics in Geometry course will present a variety of ideas from Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. This will include proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem (which Pythagoras did not discover, coincidently), the squaring of various polygons in an attempt to lead to a square with area of pi, and compass and straightedge constructions in non-Euclidean settings (where lines are not necessarily straight).
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Criminal Justice and Legal Studies

Empirical Projects

Rippey, Nick. Compliance with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders Mandate, Among the Fifty States and District of Columbia..
This study compares the 50 states, and District of Columbia, in the area of compliance with the Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO) mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974. Comparison is made based upon survey results, as well as, previously published information, in some circumstances, where survey data was not available. This project is a sub-set of data in a larger project that compared Missouri to the other states in this area.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Economics

Empirical Projects

Taylor, Melissa & Hamzaee, Reza G.. Economic Implications of Distance Education.
In this paper, the authors have provided a concise review of the literature involving the definition and economic implications of distance education programs. A system of simultaneous equations, involving mathematical functions of students’ utility, the social welfare, the institutions’ production transformation, and students’ budget constraint, constitute the economic framework. While both efficient and inefficient solutions are analyzed in the model, it is hypothesized that most of the ultimate outcomes are inefficient. Efficiency would be realized if students were able to have maximized their satisfaction subject to their limited budget, the institutions were able to fully utilize their limited resources in providing the mixture of the traditional and distance education programs which would maximize the society’s welfare level. Finally, some selective (distance education) data, provided by a medium-size 4-year institution of higher education for Spring 2002 and Fall 2003, are analyzed in the end.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF Nursing

Empirical Projects

Baker, Jason, PhD, Bentz, Kim, SN, Buckallew, Jennifer, SN, Gant, Mystique, SN, Gregory, Becky, SN, Hicks, Cara, SN, Voelkel, RN, MS. The effectiveness of Three Surgical Skin Prep Solutions.
It was the intent of this study to explore and examine three common operating room skin preparation products and their bacteriocidal properties when used according to manufacturer`s guidelines and AORN standards. A convenience sample (N=10) of student and faculty volunteers was assembled. Prior to participation in the study, an overview of the study was provided to each participant. After obtaining verbal consent, the subject`s skin was prepared with three different types of surgical preparations. A control site was used for comparison of living organisms before and after the skin preparation was applied. The cultures revealed that six control plates had less than 20 colongy forming units (cfu), one control plate had too many cfu to count, and three control plates has between 20-200 cfu, which is a significantly valid amount. The results confirmed that Chloraprep and Duraprep eliminated all living microorgaisms and Betadine Scrub and Paint significantly reduced the number of microorganisms. In conclusion, each of the skin solutions were effective in reducing the amount of living organisms that reside on the skin surface.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brown, N., SN, Hennessy, K., SN, Williams, T., SN. The Effects of Pet Visitation on Overall Health and Well-being.
The purpose of this study was to determine if pet visitation has a significant therapeutic effect on hospitalized patient`s blood pressure, pulse and respirations. This study was also aimed at determining if pet visitation effects a person`s overall mood and feelings. A convenience sample (N=17) was selected from various areas of a local hospital. Each participant was visited by a dog through the institution`s recreation therapy department. Quantitative data related to blood pressure, pulse and respirations was compared before and after pet visitation. Qualitative data related to the impact the pet visitation had on the participant`s mood and feeling was obtained through structured interviews. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in respirations (p<.05) after being in contact with the dog. Subjects were overall very welcoming and happy about seeing the dog, most thought the dog could sense how they were feeling and most of them stated they had good experiences with pets in the past whether they had owned a pet or not. There are positive physiologic effects and enhanced mood through participation in a pet visitation.
Faculty Sponsor:
Christie, L., SN, Jackson, S., SN, Smith, R., SN. Pediatric Pain Scales Face Off.
An accurate measurement of pain in young children is essential in the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and linear scalability of three popular face-scales in measuring pediatric pain. The scales tested included the Faces Pain Scale-Revised, the Wong-Baker FACES scale and the Oucher Scale. A convenience sample (N=14)was drawn from a local child development center and included children ages three to five years. Each scale tested consisted of six faces conveying increasing leveles of pain. The faces were separated and placed on individual blocks. The blocks were presented in random order and the children were asked to place the faces in order from least pain to most pain. Two hypotheses were proposed by the researchers. First, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the validity of the three scales. It was also hypothesized that the Wong-Baker FACES scale would show the greatest linear scalability, with the children placing the Wong-Baker faces with the most accuracy. Results demonstrated that there were significant differences (p=.000) between the three scales in regard to validity. In regard to linear scalability, descriptive statistics revealed the Wong-Baker Faces scale to form a more accurate continuum. It is recommended that this results of this study be confirmed through a replication study with a sample of > 50 participants.
Faculty Sponsor:
Connel, April, SN, Hausman, Lisa, SN, Kelly, Amanda, SN, Simpson, Amanda, SN. Effectiveness of Educating Adolescents on Prenatal Nutrition.
Healthy People, 2010 (DHHS, 2000) has identified the health of women, infants and children as a top priority for improving the helath of our nation by the year 2010. Therefore, efforts to support proper maternal nutrition in pregnant adolescents are consistent with national objectives. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention focused on providing age-specific prenatal nutrition education to pregnant adolescents. A convenience sample (N=32) of females 15 - 20 years old was drawn from the JUMP program and a local public high school. The intervention included a 45-minute presentation on the importance of increased nutrient intake and prenatal visits. A pre and posttest was administered and evaluated the use of prenatal vitamins, increase in folic acid intake and overall maternal nutritiona. A paired t-test for dependent groups demonstrated a significant increase in post-intervention knowledge. Based on the findings, this study supports the value of providing age-specific educational interventions to pregnant adolescents.
Faculty Sponsor:
Cooksey, Patti, SN, Curtin, Tammy, RN, Moser, Janet, RN, Stoll, Lynn, RN. College Student Perceptions of Health Risk Behavior: Future Recommendations for Student Wellness.
The health of college students is a growing concern. Are risky behaviors and attitudes leading to an unhealthy future? Healthy People 2010 (DHHS, 2000) has identified set goals for the health of the nation`s population, including college students. The leading indicators that this research focused on were; physical activity, obesity and nutrition, and injury/violence prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk behaviors and areas of health educational needs of MWSC students. The sample (N=137) was one of convenience. A survey consisting of 19 questions was distributed to students who attended the Fall 2003 Student Health Fair. The questions were based on Healthy People 2010 (DHHS, 2000) six categories of college students covering areas of health related choices that college students make. Descriptive statistics and frequencies suggest that the majority of college students surveyed are making some healthy choices. As a result of the sample size, it is difficult to determinie if the identified results are representative of a larger sample. Additionally, qualitative data was generated from a telephone survey of four like educational institutions to determine what health and wellness initiatives are being conducted elsewhere. Health risk behaviors identified on the student survey, will be recommended for future wellness endeavors with a focus on changing attitudes and improving student health.
Faculty Sponsor:
Euler, A., SN, Herman, E., SN, Malbuki, J., SN, Pablo, M., SN, Perez, L., SN. I blew my knee: The impact of sports injury on college athletes.
The literature reveals an abundance of information on ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injury and rehabilitation strategies, however little information was found on college athletes. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of sports injury on college athletes. A survey which consisted of 20 questions, was distributed to 15 college athletes who had suffered an ACL injury. Three surveys were not returned. The questions in the survey utilized qualitative and quantitative research to collect demographic information, type of ACL injury, rehabilitation strategy and coping methods. Descriptive statistics revealed that 67% of participants wre affected by isolated ACL injury, whereas 33% of the participants had associated ACL injuries. In regard to coping behavior 33% rated their coping as poor to average. The remaining 67% reported that they coped well or very well. Qualitative analysis highlighted themes of anger and fear. Another theme that emerged was that participants with a strong support system showed better results than those with a weak support system.
Faculty Sponsor:
Head, Bridget, SN, Lindsay, Sarah, SN, Molloy, Renee, SN, Vanzandt, Catherine, SN. The "Provider Connection" and Diabetic Outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of low-income diabetics who have received education, instruction and follow-up on effectively monitoring their glucose twice a day from a free health clinic. The outcome measure in this study was HbA1c levels at baseline and again at six months. HbA1c levels were evaluated from a convenience sample of 32 low-income diabetics being seen at a free health clinic. A free glucometer and test strips were provided to each individual who agreed to take and document their blood sugars twice a day. They met with a registered dietitian every 30 days to discuss their diabetic self-management. HbA1c levels were taken at the beginning of the program and again a few months later to determine how well each participant was managing their glycemic levels. A paired t-test compared baseline HbA1C levels and levels a few months into program participation. The mean values showed a significant (p=.015)improvement in the patient`s glycemic control over a six-month period. As a direct result of the care and services provided by the clinic, low-income diabetics were better able to manage their care and decrease HbA1C levels. This study reinforces the importance of health-care provider relationships on improving the self-care abilities of low-income diabetics.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hensley, D., SN, Jones, D., SN, Medsker, A., Stanton, D., SN. The Effect of Sex Education on Teen Pregnancy.
The purpose of this study ws to examine the relationship between teen pregnancy rates and the type of sex education received at high school. It was hypothesized that a more comprehensive sex education program would impact a decrease in pregnancy rates per county. The sample (N=16) was drawn from public school districts within eight counties in northwest Missouri. Statistics related to teenage pregnancy rates for each of the eight counties were obtained from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services. Focused telephone interviews were conducted and information related to the type of sex education provided was obtained from the principal or school nurse. The results from the telephone interview were compared to pregnancy rates per county in an effort to demonstrate a relationship between the type of sex education provided and the county`s pregnancy rates. Dependent t-tests reveal that there was a significant decrease in teen pregnancy rates for northwest Missouri from 1997 to 2001. The results suggest a possible connection between decreasing teen pregnancy rates and counties with high rates of comprehensive sex education programs. It is recommended that further research in this area be conducted with an effort to obtain data from all schools, both public and private, within each county.
Faculty Sponsor:
Onkoba, Vera; Woolery, Elizabeth; Brooks, Evelyn. Making Healthy Choices: Evaluating Adolescent Knowledge, Behaviors, and Values Following an Educational Intervention.
The Healthy People 2010 initiative (DHHS, 2000) for the nation was to improve the health of women, children, and infants. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention, regarding making healthy choices as it pertains to women of childbearing age. The convenience sample (N=1,558 high school females) was drawn from three public and two private high schools as well as four training centers. Using the Health Motivation Model, previous knowledge; perceived susceptibility, severity, and value of action; and internal and external aids/hindrances were assessed. Pre-interventional testing was done, followed by a one-hour educational intervention. The intervention included information on the importance of folic acid, the risks of lead exposure, and the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illegal and prescription drugs. After the presentation each student, teacher, and counselor were given educational pamphlets, and website addresses for local, regional, and national community resources. Following the intervention a posttest was administered. A three-month follow-up test was conducted. Repeated measures ANOVA (p<.01) with follow-up protective t-tests yielded increased significant mean differences from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to 3-month follow-up. In addition, there was a significant increase from posttest to 3-month follow-up for previous knowledge reflecting the continued support and education within the school, training centers, and media. Based on Piaget`s theory of formal operational thought, the findings suggest the value of developing age appropriate educational interventions for younger and older adolescents. This research was supported by a grant from the March of Dimes. See www.mwsc.edu/nursing/modresources.html
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Allen, H., SN, Snow, E., SN, Swank, A., SN. Hitting the Wall: Barriers to Evaluation Research of a Diabetic Walking Program.
A review of the literature suggests an abundance of information on the positive impact excercise can have on diabetic outcomes. A study conducted by Fritz and Rosenquvist(2001), demonstrated that walking for excercise resulted in improved glycemic control for persons with diabetes. The intent of the proposed research was to evaluate an structured walking program in which 19 diabetic patients participated. A questionnaire was designed and creative incentives for returning the survey were imposed. It was hoped that through obtaining qualitative feedback from participants, future programs could be developed and implemented locally. The researchers ran into some difficulties gaining access to the participants and infomation about the program they participated in. There was also an issue of time constraint. Due to the fact that the researchers were unable to reach any conclusions related to the initial objective of the study, a review of common barriers in implementing clinical research was conducted. In summary, the researchers learned that "even the most carefully planned studies are subject to the "real world" of clinical practice and unforeseen obstacles" (Pellino, 2002).
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Ellis, A., SN, Hall, R., SN, McNulty, S., SN. Quality Indicators to Improve Outcomes in Long-Term Care.
There has been increasing demand across the nation to evaluate quality of care in long-term care facilities. A review of recent initiatives related to improving quality in long term care facilities in the United States was conducted. More specifically, the impact of the Nursing Home Quality Initiative on a local long term care facility was explored. It was the intent of the researchers to assist the facility in exploring ways in which the facility could improve outcomes related to one specific quality indicator; loss of the resident`s ability to perform activities of daily living. The researchers were interested in how accurately and consistently staff rated a resident`s ability to perform activities of daily living and whether or not staff understood the impact of accurate functional assessment. Unfortunately, the research required access to patient records and due to the HIPAA requirement that this data be deidentified prior to use for research purposes, a decision was made by the facility`s IRB to delay the research at this time. Instead a literature review related to the impact of the 2003 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act on clinical research was conducted. It is hoped that the intended research will be carried out after the implications of HIPAA on clinical research are better understood.
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Pickert, Mary, SN, Lowdon, Renee, SN, Sale, Casey, SN. Music Therapy in Reducing Post-Operative Pain.
Post-operative pain is a major issue in hospitals today due to the fact that adequate pain management has a high influence over patient satisfaction. The literature is flooded with studies demonstrating the effect music has on decreasing the perception of pain. Therefore, it is hypothesized that music therapy, combined with pharmacological methods, has the ability to decrease post-operative pain therefore increasing patient satisfaction. The intent of this project was to validate the hypothesis by comparing postoperative blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and pain between a control (no music) and experimental group (music). However, as a direct result of the new HIPAA Privacy Rule, the research was not able to move forward. Instead an investigation into the impact of HIPAA regulations on clinical research was conducted through a review of the literature. Additionally, several schools across the United States were contacted and were asked to describe the impact HIPAA has had on their clinical research.
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DEPARTMENT OF Psychology

Empirical Projects

Adams, Carl. Watch Your Temper.
The purpose of the study was to see if a high-pitched noise would affect the concentration of the participants causing them to be frustrated. There have been studies that have shown the relationship between external stimuli on frustration and the ability to concentrate on a difficult task. Some studies have explained that test anxiety plays a role in the ability to do well on a test and that there are certain internal and external factors that correlate with frustration. In this study there were 16 (2 male and 14 female) students that took place in the study. All of the participants took a pretest and a posttest to measure the amount of frustration they were experiencing at the time. There were eight students that were used as a control group and eight students that were used as an experimental group. The results of the experiment found that the high-pitched noise had no effect on the ability to concentrate. The significance for the pretest was .681 and the significance for the posttest was .473. These were both compared to a .05 level of significance. A different outcome may have resulted if there were more participants in the study. By changing the environment in which the participants were in and changing the external stimuli, I also believe there would be a different outcome in the study.
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Barnett, Amy, Flores, Cody. Modified Stroop Task Evaluating Gender Differences in 5th Graders.
The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not there was a significant gender difference among fifth graders when performing the modified Stroop test. Previous studies have indicated that boys and girls are extremely similar when performing cognitive tasks. Thirty-five participants from a fifth grade class were a part of the modified Stroop test. A significant difference was found with the boys performing the Stroop test slower than the girls. There was no significant difference with errors.
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Cook, T. L. & Martinez, H. M.. Does Physical Attractiveness Increase the Likelihood of Getting Hired?.
This study investigated the effect of physical attractiveness on hiring decisions. Previous research has indicated that physically attractive persons are hired over physically unattractive persons. Participants included 152 undergraduate college students. Participants were asked to examine a resume along with an accompanying photograph. All resumes were identical with the exception of the photograph being a physically attractive male, a physically attractive female, a physically unattractive male, or a physically unattractive female. They were then asked their gender and if they would give the applicant an interview. A three-way ANOVA was calculated and a non-significant effect was found. This study did not support our hypothesis that physical attractiveness increases the likelihood of obtaining employment.
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Fehlker, Joseph. Gender Differences in Athletics: Baseball and Softball Knowledge.
The purpose of this study was to see whether differences in the knowledge of the sports of baseball and softball existed based on gender. Additional comparisons that were made included gender differences in knowledge based on the title of the survey and gender differences in the ability to accurately gauge knowledge. The two sports that were selected for this study were baseball and softball. While baseball is generally considered a traditionally male sport and softball a traditionally female sport, the two share many rules and much common knowledge. For this study, the naturally occurring independent variable of gender was used. In addition, the subjects were randomly assigned to either the “Baseball” survey or the “Softball” survey, when in fact the two surveys were identical. At the end of the survey, the subjects were also asked to guess how many items they thought they had answered correctly. Two two-way ANOVA analyses were performed on the data. One ANOVA was performed using the number of questions the subjects actually answered correctly on the survey and the other was performed using the subjects’ guesses in terms of correct responses. Significant results were found only in that males were found to get significantly more questions right when compared to females. Also, males were significantly different from females in terms of the number of questions that they thought they got correct. The results of the data show us that, while males answered more of the questions correctly than did females, they also expected to get more right. It is also interesting to note that females underestimated the number of questions they believed they would get correct while males overestimated this number.
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Flanagan, Caroline. Gender mediation effects of training for a mental rotation task.
Males consistently outperform females on many tasks of spatial ability with the most robust differences occurring in tasks of mental rotation. The basis for such differences arises from genetic and social variation. The ability to understand and mediate these effects has been the topic of much research in the past. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible improvement of females on a mental rotation task following a computerized training exercise.
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Hanna, Christin & Hill, Sara. The Differences in Sexual Acceptability.
The purpose of this study is to compare the acceptance of sexuality between genders and possibly marital status, married or single. In previous studies there have been large differences between genders in the acceptance of sexual values, both explicit and non-explicit. Males will be more accepting of explicit values and concepts and females more accepting of non-explicit values and concepts. We used 22 male participants and 41 female participants from beginning level psychology classes. We gave a 20-part questionnaire with 10 explicit and 10 non-explicit questions. Participants were then given both an explicit and non-explicit score. The scores will be compared by gender and possibly marital status; we expect to find the females more rejecting of the explicit than the male participants, and the females and males somewhat equal in the findings of non-explicit acceptability. We expect to find non-significant results between married and single participants. This study has a weakness; we did not have an equal sample of male and female participants. In future research a larger more equal sample size could be used to gain different results, and other contributing factors to the differences could be studied such as age, religion and sexual education levels.
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Harr, Daniel. Halo effect: The impact of differences between target and perceiver.
The halo effect occurs when physical beauty is generalized to other dimensions, such as social or intellectual skills. Previous research shows the halo effect effects social competence, intellectual competence and personal adjustment, and does not effect concern for others and integrity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of age differences between target and perceiver on the halo effect. The design will be a 2 (target: attractive vs. unattractive) X 2 (target age: 18-25 vs. over 50) X 2 (perceiver age: 18-25 vs. over 50) factorial with three dependent measures (social competence, intellectual competence and concern for others). Participants will be asked to rate a target person on a 5-point scale measuring social competence, intellectual competence and concern for others. Data will be analyzed using a 2 X 2 X 2 analysis of variance on the three dependent measures. The only main effect anticipated is for target attractiveness with attractive targets being rated higher on all dimensions than unattractive. I predict a 3-way interaction among target attractiveness, target age, and perceiver age such that the closer the perceiver age to the target, the weaker the halo effect will be.
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Holloway, Brynn. Does procrastination and stress have an effect on your health?.
The purpose of this study was to see if procrastination and stress had an effect on health behaviors. Studies have shown that a relationship between the three does exist. Procrastinators have a tendency to become stressed out when put under time constraints. This stress can have a negative impact upon your immune system, causing more chronic health conditions. In this study, 110 (68 female and 52 male) participants were given a health scale, a procrastination scale and a stress scale to complete. A significant regression equation was found that showed a decrease in health score when the procrastination score was high. It was also found that there was a decrease in the health score when the stress score was high.
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Huntermark, James and Hrenchir, Jaime. Mood and Memory: A Motivational Approach to Selectivity.
The present study examined the influence of socioemotional selectivity on mood and memory, providing a motivational interpretation. It was predicted that positive mood induction would increase memory for emotional prose, while negative mood induction would decrease memory for both emotional and informational prose. The results supported all major predictions.
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Kempf, Emily J.. Time’s Up: The Effects of Time Urgency on the Dyadic Performance under a Deadline.
Time urgency is the manner in which people keep track of and utilize time in applied settings. Previous research has found differences in abilities to meet deadlines but had failed to analyze the quality of the work produced. The purpose of this study is to determine if differences in dyadic composition (time-urgent vs. non-time-urgent dyads) correspond to the dyad’s ability to meet a deadline (deadline hypotheses), and to produce high quality work in the effort to meet the deadline (quality hypotheses). Participants were placed in homogenous dyads and asked to complete a simple but tedious task while pressed with a strenuous deadline. The tasks were then scored by assessing the number of terms defined, if the direction were followed (verbatim definitions or paraphrased), and the number of mistakes made within those definitions. When analyzed it was found that the time-urgent dyads has a slight, but non-significant, tendency to complete more definitions then the non-time-urgent dyads. However, the time-urgent dyads were significantly more likely to not follow directions, and those that did follow directions made more errors then the non-time-urgent dyads. The present research extends existing research on time-urgency in important ways. First, it will examine how this individual difference variable influences dyadic performance, not just individual-level performance. Secondly, it extends the measurement to include both quantity and quality of work performed. Both of these extensions will have useful applications to team-based organizations that use work groups to meet tasks with either qualitative or quantitative performance criteria.
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Lutz, Lisa. Are Participants Really Happy After Praying or Do They Just Think They Are?.
The aim of this experiment is to see if the participants’ happiness levels will change after attending a prayer session. It has been shown by past research attending a church/service/prayer related function can produce positive emotions and decrease some physiological function such as blood pressure, improved immune function and so on. One half of the participants were given a pretest and all were given the posttest. A non-significant trend was found between the pretest and the posttest participants. No significant difference was found between the two posttests. There was no change in the participants levels of happiness. Future research needs to have a better assessment over the location, participants, and the age of the leader for a more complete study.
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McQuinn-Campbell, Natalie and Nesslage, Jill. Does Music Have an Influence on the Moods of College Students?.
In this study, we were looking for a difference in mood between the pre-test and post-test based on the type of music played. In previous studies, music has been found to affect the heart rate and blood pressure, as well as, skin conductance. Music has also been found to decrease both distress and depression, while increasing self-esteem. Three groups were randomly assigned to either the control group with no music, the relaxed group with calm music, or the angry group with aggressive music. A pre-test and a post-test were given to each group. There was a significant difference in the happiness level, with calm music increasing happiness and no music decreasing happiness. There was also a significant difference in the level of calmness. Playing calm music tended to increase calmness in people, while no music or aggressive music lowered the calmness level. Overall, there were mood changes with some of the music. The calm music tended to show more influence than the aggressive or the control of no music.
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Starr, Kassandra J.. Do Men or Women Feel That A Certain Sex Should Be More Likely Sentenced to the Death Penalty?.
The purpose of this study was to see if there was a difference in the views of men and women in sentencing men or women to the death penalty. In previous research it has been found that men are more likely to sentence men to the death penalty than they are to women. Women are more likely to show no difference in whether or not a man or a woman is being sentenced. The test that was given to the participants was a survey where the subjects were given two scenarios, one including a man and one including a woman that had committed crimes. The participants were then asked to choose whether or not they thought the person should receive the death penalty. I was expecting to find that women are more likely to sentence men and women to the death penalty, whereas men are more likely to be compassionate to women and sentence mainly men to the death penalty. Overall, I found that there were no significant results between men and women or which sex was sentenced to the death penalty. If the participants were in a group while taking the survey their answers may be influenced by others. Another influence could be attributed to one`s views on capital punishment considering whether they are in favor or opposed to capital punishment. For future research, the intensity of the situations could be altered to see if there would be significant results found.
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Wilson, Joy. Birth Order and It`s Effect on Personality Characteristics.
Much research has been done in the past regarding birth order`s effects on personality characteristics. A vast majortiy of the results point to the idea that one`s birth position into a family does influence the development of personality characteristics. The purpose of my research project is to support this idea. A survey will given to randomly selected college students regarding their own family structure and their idea of what characteristics can be attributed to each of the three birth positions: first-born, middle born, and later-born, and whether or not these characteristics apply to themselves in their given position. I believe I will find significant results regarding the correlation between birth order and personality characteristics.
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Historical Papers

Adams, Carl. Historical Analysis of Eugenics.
Francis Galton started the idea of eugenics. With his thoughts on heredity and intelligence, Galton inspired many people with his publications. James Cattell, Alfred Binet, Henry H. Goddard and others continued Galton’s idea of eugenics through mental testing. Throughout history, not only has eugenics lead to the discovery of mental testing, but it has also started great controversy. Some psychologists have followed Galton’s ideas on selective breeding, but other organizations in the government opposed the issue of sterilization of the feebleminded. The mental-deficiency bill opposed the idea that the mentally ill should be held back from reproduction. Although there were some controversies on this concept from Galton, it did play an important role in history with regards to intelligence and mental testing. Because of Galton and his work, the ideas of heredity and genes have led to the discovery of single genes that have roles in human traits, disorders, and diseases.
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Combs, Anita. Emotion.
This research paper will examine what emotion is. It will describe what emotions are and also take a look at how different psychologists have viewed emotions. It will also focus on the Theory of Emotion and examine what the opinions of psychologists were about this theory. There were many articles used to obtain this information. Most of the articles were written first hand by famous psychologists. By the end of this research paper the reader should have a better understanding about what emotion is and how it got to where it is today.
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Cothern, Julie. The History of the Discrimination Against Women in Psychology.
Discrimination has been a large problem in the field of psychology, especially when it comes to the female gender. In the eyes of the male gender, women did not have the capabilities to do household chores, raise a family and to carry the weight of an occupation that required higher-order thinking processes. Most women attended courses in psychology, but were never able to attain their degrees. Later, studies were performed to explain the differences between men and women, and to explain why it was believed that women should remain at home with the children. Regardless of these beliefs that were previously thought, the women made many accomplishments and contributions to the field of psychology.
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Dale, Brenda. More Than Average: The Struggle of Women to Become Viewed As Equals in Psychology.
Women play an important roll in today’s psychology. This has not always been the case. For many years women were not allowed into higher education, let alone the field of psychology, because of Darwin’s variability hypothesis. The idea is one he observed in other animals, that females tend toward more average abilities, while males seem to vary much more. This fact seemed to confirm the current outlook on the difference between men and women, and made certain that women remained out of higher education because such efforts were wasted. Women were, after all, going to continue to remain average, while men could excel. This of course was not the only thing that kept women from gaining higher degrees, as the old typical female image of the homemaker still was very prominent. There were several women though that decided to make changes in the way they were seen and in the ideas that women and men are not that disparate after all. This work still continues today, dispelling older ideology with new tested theories and ideas.
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Fehlker, Joseph. Educational Psychology: A Historical Analysis and Overview.
The purpose of this paper is to take an in-depth look at the field of educational psychology. The main intention of educational psychology is to optimize learning in the classroom. Educational psychology is a combination of the educational system and the various factors psychology can introduce to help create a better overall situation for both teachers and students. In this paper, a historical analysis of educational psychology will be performed. In addition, the people that made educational psychology important are examined. Psychologists such as Edward Thorndike, John Dewey, and Stanley Hall, and their contributions to educational psychology are analyzed. The evolution of educational psychology, its place in psychology, the factors that have influenced it throughout the years and its overall significance to the field of psychology are also looked at.
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Fuller, Lindsay. An Historical Analysis of Multiple Personality Disorder.
Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) was first recognized by the work of Pierre Janet around 1889. Although popular at first, the diagnosis of MPD slowed as time went by and was later repopularized by cases like "The Three Faces of Eve" and Mary Reynolds around 1980. Many psychologists strongly believe in MPD today and that the disorder is caused by severe childhood trauma. However there are others like Nicholas P. Spanos who believe that MPD is not a real disorder, but that it is simply a sociohistorical product.
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Hamblin, Lynda. Women of Psychology: The Zeitgeist that is forever changing.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of women in psychology by looking at the different women psychologists, and their professors or outside influences, throughout time, and how they did something that influenced society either then or now. In this paper we will have a historical analysis that examines the existing literature and studies of Mary Whiton Calkins, Leta S. Hollingworth, Helen Bradford Thompson, Kate Gordon and more concerning this issue, and look at what has occurred throughout the Zeitgeist as to what steps women have taken in order for them to be where they are today. The reader may also discover how the past Zeitgeist is intertwined with our current, and they will see firsthand at how and what changes have occurred in order for our present view of how women can and are view today as opposed to in the beginning years and centuries of our country.
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Hanna, Christin. Eugenics: A Look Into the Past, Present, and Future.
This paper will explain the effect and impact that the eugenics movement had during the past, present, and the future. Eugenics is not a word that is often referred to in today’s society because it is commonly thought of as bad set of ideals and values. Not too long ago, however, not only was this term not a bad one but a term that was in heavy practice in the United States. Eugenics is the idea that some people should not be able to reproduce in order to create a superior breed of the human species. Although the idea didn’t get receptive feedback right at the beginning of its origination by Sir Francis Galton, by the very early 20th century America had picked it up and ran with it. Immigrants, imbeciles, and morons were no longer allowed to recreate; sterilization was in full effect. It took about seventy years for the eugenics movement to disintegrate, and it left thousands upon thousands of people emotionally wounded forever. Today the term eugenics is no longer used but does that necessarily mean that its ideals have gone out of practice, or has the recent controversy over genes and cloning led to a new interest in gene selection? Will this lead to a future of a genetic perfected society?
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Harr, Daniel. A historical analysis of forensic psychology.
Forensic Psychology dates back to the turn of the twentieth century. Hugo Munsterberg is often called the first forensic psychologist, after publishing his book in 1908. This work however came after the work of William Stern, who had participants recall details from photos in 1901.Other psychologists such as Alfred Binet and Sigmund Freud had also constructed tests usable in the judicial field, and in 1916, Lewis Terman began to apply psychology to law enforcement. This paper provides a historical analysis of forensic psychology and how it has evolved into its present state.
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Hornbuckle, Holly. Anna Freud: A Prodigy of Her Era.
Anna Freud is much more than a childhood prodigy and the sixth child of Sigmund Freud, for she is the founder of child psychoanalysis and also the founder of The Hampstead Child Therapy Training Course and Clinic in Hampstead London, today known as the Anna Freud Centre. Continuing the work of her father, Anna looked deeply into the working of the ego and chose the opposite end of the spectrum by analyzing children. Anna took her liking for children and after fleeing to London during WWII opened a clinic for children who had lost their parents as a product of wartime. It was here that she observed and studied to compile and publish several articles and books, which she is famous for today.
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Lutz, Lisa. The Evolution of Stress.
The concept of stress is very old. It may have occurred even to the prehistoric man. There was no one definition of stress until 1936. Hans Selye coined the term “stress” and gave stress its first definition, a physiological one. Since that time the concept of stress has become to include the psychological aspects as well. This paper gives a historical analysis of the concept of stress and traces its evolution into how it is know today.
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Martin, Myrnell. Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism calls for inequality, survival of the fittest. In the 19th century, the concepts of evolution and natural selection were the basis of social thought concerning human development and social change. The theory of Social Darwinism was invented by Herbert Spencer and popularized by Charles Darwin in 1859 with his book The Origin of Species. This paper will give a detailed account of the history of Social Darwinism and how it impacted psychology, society, and America. I will give an overview of the philosophy of Social Darwinism and its assumptions about human survival.
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Miller, Dawn. The History of Psychopathology.
The concept of psychopathology dates back to very early in the history of the world. Although the term “psychopathology” is relatively new, mental illness has been studied to as far back as 3000 B.C. The causes of mental illness have evolved throughout history; everything from demon possession to an imbalance of bodily fluids has been known to be a factor influencing mental illness. Important figures in history have had their own ideas about mental illness and have passed those ideas down to their students. The rebellion and rejection of current thoughts on psychopathology at any given moment in time is what makes psychopathology what it is today.
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Nesslage, Jill. Albert Bandura`s Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theories, Including His Concepts of Modeling, Aggression, Self-Efficacy, and Triadic Reciprocal Determinism.
Albert Bandura is probably best known for his infamous BoBo Doll experiment. This experiment showed that people learn through observation, even without reinforcement. In this case, it was modeling and aggression in children. He is also well known for his work on self-efficacy. To achieve self-efficacy one had to master and perform behaviors when needed. Another area of his research was human agency. This is closely tied to self-efficacy. Human agency is when one is proactive, motivated, planning ahead, and reflective on their behaviors. As part of his social cognitive theory, Albert Bandura came up with the triadic reciprocal determinism model. This basically says that three factors affect each other simultaneously. These factors are behavior, the environment, and cognition. Finally, his social learning and social cognitive theories are explained, as well as why he changed from a learning model to a cognitive model.
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Rose, Katherine. A Brief History of Attachment Theory.
Attachment, a term used to describe the bond of an infant to its mother, had not been researched or theorized until the twentieth century. At this time many learning theorists developed theories that infants learn to be attached to their mothers. It wasn’t until the twenty-first century, however, that the theory of attachment was developed. Attachment Theory was first described by John Bowlby in three now historical papers published between 1958 and 1960. His work described the devastating effects that can result when an infant loses a mother, claiming that with this type of separation an infant will in turn grow into neglective parent. He concluded that for a child, or infant, to grow up to be a healthy adult, it would have to have a "warm, intimate, and continuous" relationship with its mother. His work would later inspire Mary Ainsworth, who would work closely and collaboratively with Bowlby on the theory of attachment. Ainsworth wanted to take the theory a step further and study the differences in the value of communication between mother and infant. She would later study and develop the different types of attachment that existed between mother and infant in what is termed “the strange situation.” Though a relatively new topic in psychology, attachment is nevertheless an important one, that has created as many followers as it has those who debate the theory. This paper will attempt to discuss the pioneers of attachment from the beginning of the twentieth century to present day.
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Starr, Kassandra J.. The History of Social Learning Theory.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the theory of social learning. Social Learning Theory dates back to the late 1800’s. Its origins stemmed from the thought of behaviorism. Social Learning Theory has originated from the ideas of William James` "social self" and Miller and Dollard`s work. This paper looks into the history of the theory through the views of Rotter, Sears, Mischel, Akers and Bandura. Bandura has been the one who is most often associated with the theory of social learning. His work has also stimulated much research in the areas of learning and behavior. This paper basically gives the historical background of the origins and evolution of Social Learning Theory.
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DEPARTMENT OF Social Work

Literature Reviews

Bruce, Jennifer. Impact of Parent Death on Adult Children.
The death of a parent can have a profound affect on the well being of children of all ages, however, elderly death is seen by some as ordinary and necessary, and thereby no cause for an extended period of grief to be experienced by their adult children. This literature review will present five studies that examine the impact of parental death on adult children, and explore the dynamics surrounding the nature of the grief process for these individuals.
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Seaton, Rachel. Death of a Child.
The death of a child is a devastating event for all concerned. It is a societal norm to expect a spouse or parent to die, but most people do not expect their child to die before they do. Keller and Zonj (2002) say that the death of a child contradicts the perceived natural order of life and death. Some may say that the death of a child seems out of order, unthinkable, or a turning of the tables (Milo, 1997). Five research articles were chosen to examine the different aspects of children`s deaths and the aftermath related to the families.
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Wood, Kristi. Terminal Illness: A Literature Review.
Terminal describes “a condition of decline towards death from which not even a brief reversal can be expected” (DeSpelder and Strickland, 2002). According to the Leeds Oncology Working Party, the terminally ill patient is defined as “one whose death is certain and not too far distant, and for whom treatment has changed from the curative to the palliative” (Davis, Cowley, and Ryland, 1996). A terminal illness affects more than just the patient; it affects everyone around them, their friends, family, and even strangers because there is a social stigma attached to it. People tend to avoid the terminally ill. Family members and friends go through stages of grief even while the patient is still alive; they anticipate the coming death and grief. Terminal illness is more than just anticipating death, but encompasses everyone around it. Relationships are changed by terminal illness, as do the meaning and passage of time, the emotions people have, the roles of family and friends, and the experiences of everyone involved. There have been many studies concerning the terminally ill, including studies on their loneliness, patient-doctor communication, effects on their caregivers, and anticipatory grief.
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72 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY24
COMPUTER SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND PHYSICS1
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND LEGAL STUDIES1
ECONOMICS1
NURSING12
PSYCHOLOGY30
SOCIAL WORK3
EMPIRICAL49
HISTORICAL PAPER16
LITERATURE REVIEW7