Program for the Fall 2006 Multidisciplinary Research Day


December 5, 2006
12:00-2:00
Blum Union 218/219


DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Bell, Brett, Maag, Sierra and Thomsen, Kristen. THE EFFECT OF THE MINOR GROOVE DNA-BINDING DRUG HOECHST 33258.
Hoechst 33258 is a DNA minor groove binding drug that binds to A-T rich regions of DNA. Hoechst is known to alter the expression of Topoisomerase II alpha in cultured cell lines. Hoechst nonspecifically inhibits the catalytic activities of many DNA enzymes and can also specifically interrupt the breakage/reunion reaction of mammalian DNA Topoisomerase II alpha by trapping reversible Topoisomerase II alpha cleavable complexes. In this study, we examined the effect of the DNA minor groove-binding agent Hoechst 33258 on early zebrafish development by first determining the LD50 of the drug and then examining the pattern of protein expression by SDS polyacryamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It is expected that different concentration of Hoechst will alter the protein expression patterns of the zebrafish tested. Future investigation will analyze the effects Hoechst has on the expression of specific proteins such as the chaperone protein hsp70 and Topoisomerase II alpha using Western blotting and RT-PCR.
Faculty Sponsor:
Benefield, Amanda, Hague, Jeff, Updegrove, Logan, Knorr, Matt. INSECT ATTRACTION TO TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT SOURCES.
This study was conducted to see if there was a correlation between night flying insects and their attraction to two different light sources; mercury vapor and black light. The study was conducted on the Auto Tour Route at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Specimens were collected for an hour ever hour starting at eight o’clock in the evening and ending at midnight. Our hypothesis stated that the black light traps would attract more night flying insects than the mercury vapor lamps. Our data supports the opposite, the mercury vapor lamps had a greater number of night flying insects observed and counted than did the black light traps. Our second hypothesis stated that the rising of the full moon would have a negative affect on our experiment by causing the numbers of night flying insects to not be as attracted to the light sources. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the drop in the number of insects observed.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brock, Susan and Musick, Adam. THE EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE EXPRESSION OF ALPHA-TUBULIN IN ZEBRAFISH.
Cadmium is considered a known carcinogen. The International Programme on Chemical Safety published a report on the environmental aspects of cadmium in 1992 that stated rivers contained dissolved cadmium at concentrations ranging from less than 1 ng/L to13.5 ng/L. Research has shown that fish in the rivers are susceptible to adverse effects of cadmium in the water, including developmental malformations of the spine. The concentration of cadmium in fish tends to be greatest in the kidney, gills, and liver. Microtubules are important for cell structure and could be one of the targets for the adverse morphological effects seen with cadmium exposure. This study investigated the possible alterations in alpha-tubulin, a subunit of microtubules, expression in embryonic zebrafish exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium. Results of protein expression after exposure to various level of cadmium by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the expression of alpha-tubulin by Western blot analysis will be presented. Future investigations will examine the effects of cadmium on specific proteins in the organs where cadmium is found to be concentrated, such as the kidneys, gills and liver.
Faculty Sponsor:
Brown, Adam, and Davis, Megan. POLLINATORS AND FLOWER COLOR.
This study made comparisons on how flower color affects the activity of pollinators. Observations were made on different flowers to see what kind of insects are pollinating them, and then compared to the color of the flowers to see if there was a correlating relationship between the two. This study observed what insects went to 23 different plants for five minutes at a time. 42 sets of data were collected from these plants, and each plant was observed more than once. The data was pooled together using SPSS. It was determined that there was not a significant difference between the color attractiveness in either species richness or species abundance. Comparisons were made on the difference in the classes of pollinators that were observed and the only class with a significant difference was the class Lepidoptera.
Faculty Sponsor:
Edwards, Curt, and Toalson, Jennifer. EFFECTS AND LD50 OF BERENIL IN DEVELOPING ZEBRAFISH.
Specific gene targeting drugs, such as the minor-groove binding drug (MGBD) berenil, are of great interest as anti-tumor agents. MGBDs, such as Hoechst, have previously been shown to mediate the down-regulation of genes through the inference of transcription factors binding at adenine/thymine rich sequences in the promoter regions of these genes. In this study, we examined the effects of the MGBD berenil on de-chorionated zebrafish embryos during early development, and established a LD50 value for future experimental procedures. Future investigations will focus on the changes seen in the expression of specific proteins following sub-lethal exposures of berenil using Western blot and RT-PCR analysis.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gaukel Sarah, Bacon Charlie. THE EFFECTS OF CAFFINE ON GHOST SHRIMP.
Given some of the effects that caffine has on humans, what does it do to the heart rates of ghost shrimp? Their heart rate were first counted under normal conditions, before being exposed to caffine. Using three concentrations of pure caffine powder and pure filtered water, the shrimp were exposed to the caffine. They were allowed to aclumate for a short period of time, and then their heart rates were counted again. Due to the colaboration with Dr. Ashley\'s Biology 105 class, we are unable to report data at this time.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gilbert, William. THE PRESENCE OF ENDOPARASITES IN TWO SPECIES OF NORTHWEST MISSOURI GAME BIRDS.
The scope of this project was to determine the presence of endoparasites in two species of northwest Missouri game birds: the ring neck pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). A review of literature suggests that the presence of cestodes and nematodes is not uncommon for quail due to its feeding habits. However at this time no literature could be found concerning parasites in the pheasant population. There are no published results of surveys from Missouri pheasants or bobwhite quail. Birds were voluntary surrendered in various counties by hunters participating in a managed hunt offered by MDC north of Buchanan. The intestines were removed and carefully necropsied to detect the presence of helminth parasites. Ten birds were examined but no helminth parasites were recovered.
Faculty Sponsor:
Gilbert William, Ogden Brad, Paden James. THE EFFECTS OF TRICLOSAN ON EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO).
Zebrafish are a common experimental organism. This experiment was conducted to test the effect Triclosan has on embryonic development. Triclosan is an organic compound used primarily as an antimicrobial agent in many household products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, and hand soaps etc. This research is important in determining how exposure to large concentrations and/or prolonged exposure to Triclosan could induce harmful effects in aquatic environments. Our research will contribute to the information regarding the effects organic compounds, specifically Triclosan, may have in modifying developments processes in embryonic fish. Results will indicate if Triclosan has any effect on neurological development, as indicated by eye diameter size. A review of the literature would suggest that Triclosan will have a negative effect on neurological development and we predict a decrease in developing eye diameter as the concentration of Triclosan increases. \\r\\n\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor:
Hodge, Brooke ; Porter, Heather. HESNAULT POLLINATOR STUDY.
Brooke Hodge Heather Porter Pollinator Sample at Hesnault Abstract of Sampling Techniques On September 20, 2006, a pollinator study was preformed at a location referred to as Hesnault A sample of plants were observed for five minutes a piece. During the observation time, every organism that visited the plant being observed was recorded and one sample was collected. The total number of organisms visiting each plant, the number of each type, the type of plant, its general abundance, and general location were all recorded onto data sheets which were collected and analyzed later using data matrices in SPSS.
Faculty Sponsor:
Huffmon, Thomas. COLLECTING DATA FOR THE CATFISH PROJECT IN THE GRAND RIVER..
This summer I did my internship with the Missouri Department of Conservation at Chillicothe, Missouri. I worked with Greg Pitchford in the fisheries department. My main focus was on the catfish project which is a study that is being done to evaluate the catfish population dynamics in relationship to the handfishing that is being proposed. My job was to set and run hoop nets in the Grand River and tag any of the flathead catfish and blue catfish that met the conditions for tagging. The purpose of this was to get an idea on the population of flathead and blue catfish in the Grand River. This also gives the management agencies an idea of the catch rate for the catfish in the Grand River. I participated in a seining project on the Big Creek basin. We seined several of the small creeks including Big Creek. The purpose of this was so we could get a good idea of the different types of diversity of fish that inhabit these creeks. I will also discuss the relationship between the university and management agencies.
Faculty Sponsor:
Huffmon, Stacie, Kafer, Jade, and Sova, Megan. EFFECT OF NICOTINE ON ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS.
Studies have shown that in small concentrations, nicotine increases the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors leading to an increased heart rate. The purpose of this experiment is to examine if nicotine, the active ingredient found in cigarettes, has any effects on the heart rate in zebrafish embryos. We predict that nicotine will promote an increase in heart rate in 48 hour embryos and that the heart rate will be further increased after a prolonged exposure to nicotine.
Faculty Sponsor:
(Jessen, Eric) (Maki, Ryan) (Scherder, Michelle). BODY MASS AND TEMPERATURE CORRELATION WITH CRAYFISH METABOLISM.
In our experiment we are trying to determine the correlation between body mass and/or water temperature in crayfish metabolism. Metabolic rate was determined by dissolved oxygen consumption. Dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured by using LabPro Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature probes. Readings were taken every 5 minutes over a thirty minute period for three temperatures and three sizes of crayfish. By conducting the experiment with three different body masses and three different water temperatures we should be able to find a correlation between body size and/or water temperature and crayfish metabolism. We hypothesize that temperature and body mass will both show a positive correlation with metabolic rate. This will be demonstrated by an increase in dissolved oxygen consumption.
Faculty Sponsor:
Knadler, Judy. HELMINTH PARASITE POPULATIONS AMONG DIVERSE SPECIES OF FISH FROM HARTELL RESERVOIR.
Four species of fish consisting of five Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), four Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), one Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and two Golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucus) were collected from Hartell Reservoir in Clinton county and examined for total number and diversity of helminth parasites. This single random sampling of fish was conducted on October 10, 2006 with necropsy results yielding six species of helminthes: Clinostomum sp., Posthodiplostumum sp., Neoechinorhynchus sp., Crepidostomum sp., Proteocephalus sp., and Spiroxys sp.. Among the four species of fish, the largemouth bass showed a significantly higher total parasite count as well as possessing the most diverse species of helminthes. When compared between genders of all the fish species, the total parasite count showed no significant difference.
Faculty Sponsor:
Maki, Ryan and Siewert, Jordan. THE EFFECT OF THE ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFEXOR ON EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT IN ZEBRAFISH.
Due to the increasing amounts of pharmaceuticals, personal hygiene and health care products we use in our daily lives, there is an accumulating level of these chemicals that enter the environment through current wastewater treatment facilities. Recognizing that his could effect the life cycles of aquatic organisms, we are investigating the effects of Effexor in developing zebrafish. Previous studies have shown that similar antidepressants delay development in amphibians. In our experiments, we are determining a possible correlation between Effexor exposure and the rate of embryonic development in zebrafish embryos. Development will be measured as a difference in size and morphology. This research will further toxicological aspects of human impact on the environment. We predict that embryos exposed to the drug will exhibit a decrease in size when compared to control embryos and possibly prove lethal at higher concentrations.
Faculty Sponsor:
Meyer, Beth, Bowlin, Alicia, Link, Melissa. SODIUM FLORIDE'S EFFECT ON CARTILAGE IN EMBRONIC ZEBRISH.
Fluoride is found in various personal hygiene products, such as toothpaste and as an additive in municipal water supplies. Previous research has shown that fluoride has an effect on bone structure. We are examining the effect fluoride has on the development of cartilage and bone in early zebrafish embryos. A review of the literature suggests that fluoride will have a negative effect on the development of cartilage and bone in the zebrafish embryos. A protocol for staining cartilage in embryonic zebrafish exposed to varying concentrations of sodium fluoride will be presented.
Faculty Sponsor:
Schneidervin, Kiehl, Mohamed. SURVIVORSHIP OF TURBATRIX ACETI IN VARIED PH CONDITIONS.
The species Turbatix aceti, commonly called “vinegar eels”, belongs to the Phylum Nematoda and is most commonly found in a culture of apple cider vinegar. The pH of this type of vinegar ranges from 5.0-6.0, making the conditions of their living environment relatively acidic. For the purposes of our experiment, we used micro-titration plates and placed approximately 5 micro-liters of vinegar eels into 300 micro-liters of various pH solutions consisting of a control of apple cider vinegar, as well as neutral and basic pH solutions. We then examined the plate for survivorship percentages of the vinegar eels in the various solutions after a given amount of time. Preliminary results indicate more basic solutions yielding a higher percent mortality.
Faculty Sponsor:
Murril, Shellie. THE DISTRIBUTION AND DETECTION OF EHRLICHIA THROUGHOUT NORTHWEST MISSOURI IN TICKS.
The detection of Ehrlichia has been studied in dogs, white-tailed deer, and humans by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These have resulted in the accumulation of disease detection and distribution data. Other PCR studies have examined the vector, ticks, for this human infection. The purpose of this study was to collect tick species in public use areas of several counties. A total of 187 ticks were collected throughout seven counties on eight Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) public use areas. Identification of the ticks revealed the prevalence of two tick species Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis. Analysis of isolated DNA by PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the existence of ticks carrying the bacteria for human ehrlichiosis. Comparison of DNA against known Ehrlichia genus and species-specific primers has yet to be conducted. It is hoped that data found will allow the general public to aware of the identification of those ticks in various public use areas they visit to be possible vectors of human disease. Public knowledge can ultimately lead to awareness and prevention.
Faculty Sponsor:
Murril, Shellie. A COMPARISON OF BIRD DIVERSITY IN SEVERAL SUCCESSIONAL HABITAT TYPES IN NORTHWEST MISSOURI.
Seventy-nine bird species were observed in several different successional habitat categories at the Pony Express Conservaiton Area near Osborn, Missouri, during five consecutive ten-day sampling intervals from May 1 to June 20, 2006. A standard point count method with sampling points evenly spaced at 100 meters was used for this study. The sampling time was 10 minutes per plot per sampling interval. The highest bird diversity indices based on Simpson and Shannon-Weaver determinations were found in the Old Field, Shrubby Field and Forest Edge habitat categories follwed by the Agricultural Field and Young Woods habitat categories. The Mature Woods habitat category showed the lowest bird diversity indices in this study. The diversity index differences among the different habitat categories were fairly consistent throughout the study with the highest diversity indices occuring in May, before the nesting safe dates for most birds.
Faculty Sponsor:
Murril, Shellie. A COMPARISON OF BIRD DIVERSITY IN SEVERAL SUCCESSIONAL HABITAT TYPES IN NORTHWEST MISSOURI.
Seventy-seven bird species were observed in several different successional habitat categories at the Pony Express Conservation Area near Osborn, Missouri, during five consecutive ten-day sampling intervals from May 21 to June 20, 2006. A standard point count method with sampling points evenly spaced at one hundred meters was used for this study. The sampling time was ten minutes per plot per sampling interval. The highest bird diversity indices based on Simpson and Shannon-Weaver determinations were found in the plots dominated by old field/tall grass/shrubby field/forest edge and old field shrubby field/forest edge habitat category combinations. These were followed by old field/tall grass/forest edge and then agricultural field/old field/ tall grass habitat category combinations. The lowest two bird diversity indices were found in the tall grass/old field/agricultural field followed by the old field/tall grass/agricultural field habitat category combinations. Water features (ponds and lakes) were also shown to have a positive effect on overall bird diversity. The diversity index differences among the different habitat category combinations were fairly consistent throoughout the study with highest bird diversities occurring in May before the nesting safedats for most species. Support from the Missouri Department of Conservation.
Faculty Sponsor:
Evans, Ryan. VEGETATION PATTERNS IN A SUCCESSIONAL MISSOURI RIVER FLOOD PLAIN.
As part of a joint project of the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), a chute of the Missouri River was opened through the Lower Hamburg Bend Conservation Area (LHBCA) in the northwest corner of Missouri in an attempt to create an island, sloughs and backwater areas. Within a 300-acre area primarily affected by the new chute, 232 evenly spaced permanent sampling plots and 18 randomly located plots selected on a yearly basis were used to sample herbaceous plants, woody seedlings, saplings and over-story trees according to the Vegetative Monitoring System (VMS) of the MDC. All sampling was done during late May, June and early July of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. This study describes over 85 plant species sampled from all plots and it also compares VMS importance values of the top species in the study area. Although the river chute was open in the study area during the final two years of the study (2005 and 2006), there was no major flooding and the anticipated sloughs and backwater areas were not yet formed in the LHBCA at the conclusion of this project. Most of the plants recorded during the surveys were introduced and/or generalist species according to the VMS Coefficient of Conservatism. It is expected that native wetland species will increase in importance in the LHBCA with future flooding and the establishment of backwater areas and sloughs. Support from the Missouri Department of Conservation.\\r\\n\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor:
Smith, Anna. THE EFFECTS OF UV-B RADIATION ON NEWT LIMB REGENERATION.
Effects of UV-B radiation on the regenerative abilities and the growth rate of amphibians has been widely studied in respect to embryogenesis and larval formation. This studies investigated the limb regenerative capabilities and growth rate of adult Triturus viridescens while exposed to UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B exposure had no effect on the growth rate of T. viridescens, but did impact the regenerative capabilities of limb formation.
Faculty Sponsor:
Seeger, Sandie, Patrick, George. EARLY POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO LEAD LOWERS BICUCULLINE-INDUCED SEIZURE THRESHOLD.
Lead-induced seizures, increased activity levels and troubling neurobehavioral sequelae continue to plague the world’s lead exposed children. Clinical and veterinary (zoo) reports have indicated lead’s toxicological legacy has persisted for decades. Numerous studies have been undertaken to elucidate the effects of early postnatal exposure to lead. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of early postnatal lead exposure on bicuculline-induced seizure threshold. Kittens were exposed to low levels (20 mg/kg) of lead acetate by esophageal intubation during the first 7 days of life. Subsequently, the treated and control kittens were raised without intervention to 10 weeks of age. Daily observations revealed no spontaneous overt seizure activity, ataxia or other evidence of neurological dysfunction. Animals were prepared for EEG recordings and intravenous bicuculline infusion under anesthesia. The results clearly show the lead-treated animals had a lower threshold to bicuculline-induced seizure activity. In addition, the decreased seizure threshold in lead-treated kittens occurred 9 weeks beyond lead exposure and with background blood lead values. Either body weight or brain weight were affected by exposure to lead. The results support the findings of latent effects of early lead exposure in children and correlate to studies of seizure activity in other species.
Faculty Sponsor:

Historical Papers

Justice, Margaret and Travis, Brenda. BIOLOGY OF AGING.
Studies have been done on the elderly (persons >65) since the 1940’s (Dethlefsen, 1980). Numerous methods for studying this group have been proposed including meta-analysis, longitudinal studies and cross sectional studies as well as interviews and recordings in the oral tradition style(Hansen, 1989 and Morgan 2005). This project consisted of a 50 minute interview with a female or male >70 years of age. The questionairre consisted of open ended Q & A, desciption-type, point-blank, direct questioning and cross-examine type questions. The interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. A genogram was also produced from the information gathered during the interview and photographs were collected.
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Hamilton, Mark, Walton, Kristin and Warner, Jeremy. USE OF A VIDOE GAME AS A PEDOGOGICAL TOOL.
Missouri Western State University Biology Department is in development of a video game that will act to increase the number of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields and retain new female scientists in the science workforce while informing the educational community, the scientific community and the general public about gender issues through development, initiation and dissemination of an outreach and communication project. The project will be geared toward women who are rural first generation college students and the universities who support their education. In pursuit of this goal the biology department in conjunction with the departments of english, math, computer science, communications, art and theatre will create a video game designed to mentor female students at the undergraduate level. While changing attitudes of the students is essential to our goals, we also want to promote a change in educational practices to help facilitate the evolution of our students into practicing scientists. To this goal we will design seminars to inform professors from MWSU and other regional universities, who have large numbers of female first generation college students, about gender issues in STEM and teach these professors how to introduce the VG into their classrooms.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND THEATRE

Empirical Projects

Nelson, Derek. OVER THE TOP: HOW MUCH DOES PERCEIVED PARENT....
The topic of how parents behave and the effects it has on youth in athletics is very relevant to communication. Many children quit playing sports due to the way their parents acted or behaved while they were involved in youth athletics. The study consists of surveys completed by MWSU students on how they viewed their youth athletics experience to find if there is a relationship between percieved parent behavior and child enjoyment of youth athletics.
Faculty Sponsor:
Sipp, Carolyn. STUDY ABROAD PROGRAM AWARENESS.
Globalization has brought to light the importance of awareness of other cultures. Higher education has a responsibility to provide students with opportunities that will expand their knowledge of other cultures. This study examines the attitudes of Missouri Western State University students concerning participation in study abroad programs.
Faculty Sponsor:
Summa, Julie. HOW TO GET \\\'THE BUTTS\\\' IN THE SEATS.
The Goal: \\r\\nThe goal of the research problem is to determine the most effective mode of advertising/publicity for the Missouri Western Theatre department.\\r\\n\\r\\nThe Research Problem: \\r\\nWhat is the relationship between mode of advertising/publicity and event awareness for students on the Missouri Western campus.\\r\\n In the past the advertising routine for the department has been touch-and-go and no one has tried to determine what the most effective way of getting the word out about the new show. It would save the department money in the long run and let them know where their money is best spent.\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor:
Videau, Brian. MUSIC IN A POSITIVE LIGHT.
Music is a major way that our society communicates with one another. Music has a way a persuading an individual rather it be in a positive or negative mood. Men and women may be triggered in different ways whereas different races may also hinder a certain area of music also in a different perception. The study was taken from Missouri Western students here on campus of the fall semster of 2006. The study was taken to discover if there wasnt a relationship between music, attitude, gender and race.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Empirical Projects

Clutter, Amber. DOES ALCOHOL INCREASE AS STUDENTS PROGRESS IN SCHOOL?.
This study closely examines the amount of times students consume alcohol and factors as to why they consume alcohol as they progress in their education. A survey was given to undergraduate students attending a university in the fall semester of 2006.The surveys were handed out to random students and were analyzed by SPSS. The results suggests that the students increased the amount of times that they consumed alcohol per week. Additionally, the results suggest that their environment and friends play an important role in an student\\\\\\\'s alcohol consumption.
Faculty Sponsor:
Davis, Chris. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: DOES AGE, RACE, AND GENDER PLAY A ROLE IN CASES GETTING REPORTED?.
According to the NCVS in 1998 nearly 8 out of every 1000 women in this country experienced some kind of intimate partner violence. In 1998 women were 3 out of every 4 victims of the 1,830 murders attributable to intimate partners. In 1976 women were just over half of the approximate 3,000 victims. This shows a pattern in increased arrests that may be attributed to tougher laws on battery, as many states have adopted laws making it mandatory for an arrest if evidence exists of an assault. The research by United States Department of Justice (2002) states that in 1998 blacks were the victims of abuse by intimate partners at higher rates than that of any other race. Black females experienced intimate partner violence at a rate 35% higher than that of white females, and about 2.5 times higher than that of other races (United States Department of Justice 2002).
Faculty Sponsor:
Portman-Davis, Bailey. FEMALES, FIGHTS AND FRUSTRATIONS.
This study was conducted to understand the impact that threats and violence had on middle school females. The study also focused on the coping mechanisms used by middle school girls. The researcher surveyed eigth grade girls at Bode Middle School in St. Joseph, MO. Overall, 121 girls were surveyed anonymously.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dudley, Natalie Blair. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING ACADEMIES.
The main focus of this study was to research the use of restorative justice and if this philosophy is being taught early in criminal justice careers. The research conducted looked to see if the selected nine states had restorative justice statutes and then a survey was given to determine if the philosophy of restorative justice was being taught in each state’s law enforcement training academies. The purpose of the survey was to determine if restorative justice is becoming more widespread.
Faculty Sponsor:
Greer, Jodi. THE NEED FOR EDUCATION IN JUVENILE DIVERSION.
The purpose of this study was to look for the need for education in juvenile diversion by looking into Buchanan and Ray Counties. The study became a null hypothesis due to the fact that the juvenile programs do not have a specific educational focus, which resulted in no available data. The study began to then look at the need for those programs based on drop-out numbers and truancy numbers for Richmond, Missouri and St. Joseph, Missouri.
Faculty Sponsor:
Tanner, Dallas. IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON MEXICAN & COLOMBIAN.
The overall purpose of this study is to use the arrest and seizure rates from 2000-2004 to measure the threat posed to the U.S. by the trafficking of Mexican cocaine and Colombian heroin. These statistics were provided by state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the country. The total number of arrests and seizures of cocaine and heroin from 2000-2004 were used to determine the effectiveness of the expenditures funded by the government. The researcher used these figures to represent an increase or decrease in cost effectiveness of the funds spent towards anti-drug trafficking operations.
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Fisher, Angela. THE EFFECTS OF TERRORISM ON TODAY’S STUDENTS AT MISSOURI WESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of terrorism on today’s society at Missouri Western State University. Then there will be the preponderance as to if recent events have affected ones thought. For this study to work one will have to choose to participate will be asked questions about terrorism and will also be given the chance to voice their own personal thoughts about terrorism. The end question that the researcher will be looking for is the area ready for a strike in terrorism and will people know what to do? There are many thoughts that recent event have greatly changed the mind of people and what they think about terrorism.
Faculty Sponsor:
Godinez, Melissa. CRIME IS EVER-CHANGING: ARE CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROGRAMS KEEPING UP.
Abstract Technological advancements have led to changes in the methods used in committing and solving crime in areas such as cyber crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, and forensic evidence collection. The purpose of this project was to determine if criminal justice curriculum changes are reflecting the changes in crime and what methods they are using to achieve this.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF NURSING

Empirical Projects

Constable, Katharine; Dimmel, Frederick; Frazier, Linda; Landers, Scott; McCall, Tara; O'Rourke, Genni;. THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT AS A MENTOR.
THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT AS A MENTOR Katharine Constable, SN; Frederick Dimmel, SN; Linda Frazier, SN; Scott Landers, SN; Tara McCall, BSE, SN; Genni O’Rourke, BSA, SN; Evelyn Brooks, PhD, MSN, BSN, RN This research project evaluates the effectiveness of the Healthy Buddy mentoring program from the university students’ perspective as a mentor. Research substantiates that mentoring programs are effective ways to improve the positive development of at-risk children. At-risk and disadvantaged children seem to benefit the most from involvement in a mentoring program (Jekielek, Moor, Hair, Scarupa, 2002). The Healthy Buddy program is based on the Healthy People 2010 and the Search Institute’s Developmental Assets (2001). University students are paired with Title I elementary school children to establish a relationship which positively impacts the health and quality of life of at-risk children. The mentor and mentee meet for 20 to 30 minutes each week throughout the semester. Goals for each weekly visit are established to address a physical, developmental, or emotional concern. At the end of the semester, the mentors reflect on the experience. Study findings of the mentors’ reflections will be analyzed using qualitative analysis. Results will be shared and will highlight the “lived experiences” of the mentors.
Faculty Sponsor:

Empirical Projects

Moore, Katie SN, Caswell, Rebecca LPN, SN, Blankenship, Bobbi LPN, SN, Tourtillott, Misty LPN, SN, Hapes, Adam SN, Radley, Emily BS, SN. INOCULATION EFFECTS OF "AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION".
Inoculation Effects of "An Ounce of Prevention" Over the past few decades, research studies have focused on preventing poor pregnancy outcomes. Healthy People 2010 is a set of objectives that includes recognizing folic acid consumption and tobacco/alcohol cessation as important interventions during pregnancy(Healthy People 2010). The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the March of Dimes preventative educational program, “An Ounce of Prevention," among high school students in northwest Missouri. Senior nursing and health education students from Missouri Western State University, after attending a two-day educational workshop, presented the "An Ounce of Prevention" curriculum to high school students. The students were given a pre-test and post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational presentation. Results of the dependent t-test will be shared. This research was supported by a grant from the March of Dimes.
Faculty Sponsor:

Literature Reviews

Patti L. Callaway SN, Sarah G. Parker BSBA, SN, Brandy L. Sarsi BBAM, SN, Maili Wallace AS, SN, Mary C. Tongate BS, SN. EDUCATING THE EDUCATORS: PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS.
Educating adolescents of childbearing age on the effects of folic acid, alcohol, and tobacco use is the first line of defense in reducing preventable birth defects, yet little is known about knowledge base and acuity of high school educators and future nurses on this subject. A review of literature demonstrates the importance of teacher education and professional development for high school health educators and nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative study is to: (a) disseminate the research and resources associated with education addressing preventable birth defects for educators and university nursing students, and (b) illustrate the effectiveness of increasing nursing student and high school educator knowledge produced at An Ounce of Prevention workshop. The study supports the need for an education program provided to educators. This research was supported by a grant from the March of Dimes.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Bryant, Lea. SELF ESTEEM AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR: WHO\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'S MORE AGGRESSIVE?.
Aggressive people often use anger, aggressive body language, or other threatening behavior to bully and dominate other people. The purpose of my study was to find out whether individuals with high self esteem were more aggressive than individuals with low self esteem. 68 participants from Missouri Western State University were given a survey. The survey included Rosenberg’s self esteem scale (1965) and an aggression questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992). Anger, physical aggression, hostility, and verbal aggression were the aggressive behaviors measured. Of the four aggressive behaviors hostility was the only one to show a strong negative correlation with self esteem.
Faculty Sponsor:
Cole, Ian. THE EFFECTS OF CANNED LAUGHTER ON BYSTANDER APATHY.
The differences in ones reaction to a distressful situation with and without the presence of a laugh track were compared. It was hypothesized that canned laughter will deter a person from helping the one in need. The presence of bystander apathy was measured by the type of response each participant exerted during the distressful situation. The participants who came over to see if I was all right displayed little or no bystander apathy, while the participants who did not come over and kept to themselves showed a significant amount of bystander apathy. This study was conducted to see if canned laughter had any effect on bystander apathy during a stressful situation and according to the results, it does. The results indicated that the group of subjects who experienced the stressful situation without the laugh track was more likely to help out, proving that they had less bystander apathy. While the group in a stressful situation, with a laugh track displayed a significant amount of bystander apathy by not coming to see if I was all right. The findings are in agreement to the hypothesis of this experiment, which states that, the participants who experience canned laughter during an emergency situation will not take it as a serious event thus, displaying bystander apathy. This also supports the theory that people wait on others to help the one in need instead of helping themselves. This is another study that shows the influence we have on one another, even in times of need.
Faculty Sponsor:
Collins, Kasandra. DOES NEGATIVE MEDIA CAUSE SOCIETIES DISLIKE OF PIT BULLS.
Research was conducted to see if negative media caused people to have negative views and feelings on Pit Bulls. Three news articles were randomly distributed to 48 participants in a general psychology class at Missouri Western State University, who then answered questions related to their particular article. These answers were analyzed using a one way between subjects ANOVA. Out of fourteen questions analyzed, only four showed significance in their results and an additional three were marginally significant. Although, there were significant findings amongst some of the questions analyzed, they were not well enough defined to show that negative media was the specific cause for their significance.
Faculty Sponsor:
Colvin, Sonya & Garside, Julie. CARL JUNG NEOPSYCHOANALYTICAL.
Carl Jung (1875-1961)was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud. His theory of personality was parallel and contradictory to Freud\\\'s theory. Jung\\\'s theory focused on conscious, personal unconscious and collective unconscious. Jung rejected Freud\\\'s emphasis on the sexual nature of humans in the role of personality development. Jung stressed the spiritual nature of humans and the role of philosophical aspects in the development of personality.
Faculty Sponsor:
Dailey, Koren. BIRTH ORDER AND ITS EFFECT ON MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
This study looks at the effect of birth order on academic motivation. Participants were given the Academic Motivation Scale and a short background questionnaire. This scale was given anonymously. No significant differences were found between birth orders, though a significant difference was found in the interaction between birth order and GPA. This study would need many more participants to show a significant difference, as birth order effects are normally very small.
Faculty Sponsor:
Eidenshink, Paula. MEASURING STEREOTYPE DIFFERENCES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS.
In this study college students from Missouri Western State University participated in a survey on stereotypes. The students ranked a volunteer on their first thoughts of her appearance. The purpose of the study was to see if attending college would have an effect on student’s stereotypes. Upper and lower level psychology courses were compared. The results showed that it did not matter. The stereotypes were similar between both.
Faculty Sponsor:
Garside, Julie A.. SPIRITUAL CONNECTION, SPIRITUAL DISCONTENT, AND HEALTH.
Religious coping style refers to an individual’s spiritual relationship with a higher power and what effect that relationship has in daily life. This study explored the relationship between the religious coping styles of Spiritual Connection and Spiritual Discontent with physical health, healthy behaviors, and Type D personality in 101 college students.Findings indicate a moderate correlation between Spiritual Connection and participation in healthy behaviors. Although the correlation was not strong, this study also indicated that there may be a link between Spiritual Discontent and Type D personality. Further studies are merited to study this correlation to complete a fuller picture of how these factors relate.
Faculty Sponsor:
Henderson, Brandon. DREAM RECALL FREQUENCY AND PERSONALITY.
The purpose of this study was show that personality scores will affect dream recall frequency. Psychology 100 students (n = 39), completed a front and back survey which consisted of a dream journal and The Big Five Personality Survey which they kept for seven days. Although personality did not have a profound effect on the number of dreams recalled, emotional tone was a significant predictor of the number of dreams recalled. At this time, therefore, personality scores do not appear show an affect on dream recall.
Faculty Sponsor:
Humphrey, Alesha. HIGHLIGHTING V. WRITING.
How well do people remember? What is the best way to remember information? The results of this study could help answer these two questions. Everyone wants to be able to remember things. Students often stress over studying for a test. The purpose of this study is to determine which rehearsal method; highlighting words or writing them down while you study them, increases the recollection of the words. It is hypothesized that writing the words down while studying them would produce the highest number of words recalled. The results of this study suggest that it is easier to remember information if you write it down while studying it.
Faculty Sponsor:
Lawing, Jeremy. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-ESTEEM AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION.
Based on data collected via a survey from 26 workers at a retail store, with self-esteem, alcohol consumption, and diet components, Pearson correlations were run between self-esteem, alcohol consumption, and age to see if a relationship existed. It was found that as age increases, so did self-esteem and alcohol consumption. However, self-esteem and alcohol consumption only showed a slight positive relationship.
Faculty Sponsor:
Liu, Jillian H. THE EFFECT OF A COLLEGE EXERCISE CLASS ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS.
In recent years, the importance of a high self-esteem has been greatly emphasized.(Sonstroem, 1989). It has even been shown that some psychiatric disorders are distinguished by a low self esteem, for example clinical depression, anxiety, and personality disorders (Beck et al, 2001, as cited in Knapen and Van, 2003). The purpose of this current study is to investigate the effects of a one hour exercise class on self-esteem. Data was collected from a total of 30 female undergraduate students. The students were enrolled in various college exercise classes. The Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure the self-esteem of each participant. The participants filled out the Rosenberg scale the first day of the week that their respective class took place. In order to control for any practice effect, participants filled out the scale again two days later after the completion of their respective 40 minute class. The results of this study do not fully support the hypothesis that the exercise classes would raise the self-esteem scores. There was a non-significant trend found between the before class self-esteem score, and the after-class score. The current study measured self-esteem only after a one hour exercise class. Further research is needed to investigate the link between exercise and self-esteem.
Faculty Sponsor:
Polk, Ashley. EFFECTS OF STRESS ON SELF-ESTEEM.
Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has had to cope with at some time in their lives. Stress is defined as a mental or physical tension or strain (Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1982). Everyone has had to deal with some form of stress in their life. How stress affects a persons life varies from each individual. Not knowing how to cope with stress could affect other areas in a persons’ life such as self-esteem. Self-esteem is defined as a belief in oneself. Having high or low self-esteem could also affect other things going on in a persons’ life. If a person had high self-esteem would you expect them to have low stress levels? If a person had low self-esteem would you expect them to have high stress levels? The purpose of this study was to discover if there is a correlation between stress and self-esteem. 64 participants were used for this study. The participants were undergraduate students attending Missouri Western State University located in Saint Joseph Missouri. Participants were surveyed to measure their stress and self-esteem. The Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem survey was used to measure the participants’ self-esteem. The Holmes and Rahe (1967) stress scale was used to measure the participants’ stress level. A Pearson correlation was calculated examining the relationship between subjects’ stress and self-esteem. A weak correlation that was not significant was found (r (62) = .128, p > .05). Stress is not related to self-esteem.
Faculty Sponsor:
Richardson, Emily. EFFECTS OF GENDER ON RECALL.
Memory is something that we use and rely upon every day. Although it is thought that women and men think and therefore remember differently. In a study done by Jausovec and Jausovec (2005) it was shown that male\'s brain activity decreases with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. The purpose of this study was to discover if there is a significant effect for the sex of a participant on the types of gender associated images recalled from a slide show. 28 undergraduate students from a mid sized university in Northwest Missouri participated in this study. Participants were shown 20 slides of male or female associated images and then asked to recall as many as possible in one minute. A 2X2 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated comparing the number of gender associated images recalled by male or female participants. It was thought that there would be a strong significance of the gender of the participant as to which gender based images were remembered. Neither the gender of the participant nor the gender associated with the image had a great significant effect on the recall.
Faculty Sponsor:
Salsbury, Keri. THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF ALFRED ADLER.
Alfred Adler was an intrapsychic theorist in the field of psychology. This poster tries to give a brief look at his life. It contains information about where he was born, where he received his education, and who he studied with. It also gives an overview of his basic concepts, such as his opinions on birth order, and his theories on feelings of inferiority. Also included is a summary on his contributions to the field of psychology.
Faculty Sponsor:
Salsbury, Keri. THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL INCOME AND EDUCATION ON HOMOPHOBIA.
Students at a Midwestern university were given the Homophobic scale to determine the amount of homophobia that they exhibited. They were asked questions about the income and education of their parents to find out if a correlation could be found. The results for a correlation between homophobia and the education of the parents of the participants showed no significance. However, the results for the correlation between the income of their parents and homophobia approached significance. There was no significant difference in the homophobia of participants from different religious backgrounds. Men scored significantly higher on the Homophobic scale than women did. These findings suggested that the income that a child is raised in may have an effect on the amount of homophobia that they exhibit as adults.
Faculty Sponsor:
Sherman, Sheryl. A PVC TREAT DISPENSER AND FEEDING ENRICHMENT FOR PET CAPUCHIN MONKEYS.
The use of a primate treat dispenser as an enrichment tool to increase foraging behavior was evaluated with 20 pet capuchin monkeys (15 Cebus apella, 3 Cebus capucinus and 2 Cebus olivaceus) ranging from 1-38 years of age. Observations over 10 days compared time spent collecting treats from a feeding dish with time spent extracting treats from a feeding enrichment treat dispenser. A significant increase in time spent collecting treats from the dispenser was found. Handedness observations revealed no significant hand preference for retrieving treats from an open food dish, but did reveal significant hand preferences on the bimanual task of operating the dispenser as well as the hand used to retrieve the treats.
Faculty Sponsor:
Thompson, Jessica. FINGER LENGTH LINKED TO FEMALE ATHLETIC ABILITY.
Digit ratio is the ratio of lengths of different digits, fingers or toes. Digit ratio is thought to be sexually dimorphic. Females typically have index and ring fingers of about the same length, but higher levels of testosterone during a fetal development facilitates the growth of the ring finger. The length of a girl’s ring finger could be an early indicator of her future sporting potential. For the study I compared the digit ratios of Missouri Western State University female athletes with psychology 101 females to try to find a relationship in finger length. There was no significant difference found in the average ratio of right hand index to ring finger, but there was a significant difference in the average ratio of left hand index to ring finger. Overall, the hypothesis that digit ratio can indicate athletic ability can be supported when referring to the left hand.
Faculty Sponsor:
Tinker, Amy Diane. STRESS AND EXERCISE.
This study measures the effect of exercise on stress levels. Groups take a stress survey, and then one group is asked to engage in physical activity for two minutes. The other group did not engage in physical activity. Then both groups were asked to take the stress survey again. No significant difference was found in the stress levels of the subjects from the group that engaged in physical activity and those subjects who did not.
Faculty Sponsor:
Valenzuela, Arturo. A LOOK INTO MEMORY AND PERSONALITY.
The difference in memory between Introverts and Extroverts was investigated. Two different types of memory tests were also used, words and three digit numbers. The memory types were determined by using a Jung Typology test. The results indicate that there is no significant different between correct recalls between the two personality types. There was a significant interaction affect between personality type and the number of false recalls for the different memory tests. The findings are not congruent with the research in this field.
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Personality Papers

Bruce, Brandi. ERIK ERIKSON'S PERSONALITY THEORY.
This poster gives an overview of Erikson's life, including information on his adoption and name change. It explains the basis of his theory and examines the eight psychosocial stages of development that he created. Some criticisms that have been made of Erikson's theory are listed as well as a number of ways that it has been extended and employed. A list of Erikson's more famous works is also provided.
Faculty Sponsor:
Buczek, Erica, Cole, Ian and Norton, LaToria. SOCIAL PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGISTS: KAREN HORNEY AND ERICH FROMM.
Karen Horney and Erich Fromm are both considered Social psychoanalytic psychologists. Horney is particularly famous for challenging Freud’s ideas of women. She is considered a feminist psychologist and developed the concept of womb envy. Other concepts that Horney is know for is the real self and the ideal self. Fromm is truly a social psychologist. In college he studied both sociology and psychology. He has created many social theories. His principle theory is that all humans want to escape from freedom. Fromm also is an accomplished author.
Faculty Sponsor:
Beck, Rachel and Gillis, Talia. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY.
Sigmund Freud and Psychonalyitcal field consists of many aspects. We have covered his biography and contributions to Psychology. Contributions studied include his Psychosexual Stages, Defense Mechanisms and dream interpretation. Therapy techniques were a point of interest,IE (Free assocation, dreams, setting and overall Freud"s method of therapy)There are many things that Freud contibuted to Psychology.
Faculty Sponsor:
Hays, Sami; Marshall, Lance; Thompson, Jessica; Henderson, Brandon; Henley, Jamie. THE BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGIST.
We wrote about The Famous Behavior Psychologist and their biographies, contributions and achievements to psychology. Our poster contains B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, Neal Miller and John Dollard, and Arnold Lazurus. There were five of us that worked seperate finding information on each psychologist from different websites, articles, and journals.
Faculty Sponsor:
Kaneaster, Steven; Lyday, Rachel; Dixon, Bradley. COGNITIVE THEORIES: KELLY, ELLIS, AND BECK.
George A. Kelly was born in Perth, Kansas in 1905. After receiving his Ph.D. from the State University of Iowa in 1931, Kelly went on to lay the foundation for modern cognitive psychology. Kelly died in 1967. Albert Ellis, founder of the Albert Ellis Institute in new york, became a psychologist in order to overcome anxiety and to be a happier person. Ellis is most recognized for his unique "ABC" theory of personality and his Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy which was designed to free individuals to become their "true self". Aaron Beck, born in 1921, has become famous for his research into depression, suicide, anxiety and panic disorders, substance abuse, medical problems, and personality disorders. Beck has also coauthored over 250 articles and 12 books.
Faculty Sponsor:
Petri, Nicole, Tinker, Amy. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN.
Harry Stack Sullivan was born in 1892 in Norwich, New York. He was in the interpsychic camp. A lot of his contributions were influenced by his lonely childhood and his perceived homosexuality. He placed a lot of emphasis on the importance of the effect of relationships with others. He died in Paris in 1949.
Faculty Sponsor:
Riddle, R., Quarles, R., Eidenshink, P., & Pierce, A.. HUMANISTIC/ EXISTENTIALIST.
The Humanistic/ Existentialist poster will consist of three main personality theorists: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. There will be a brief biography of each theorist and a more extensive section devoted to their theories. Some of the theories will include Maslow's Hierchy of needs, Roger's "Client Centered Therapy", and May's "stages of development." There will be three photos at the top and a reference section at the bottom.
Faculty Sponsor:
Spray, Joshua. SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY.
This poster is meant to represent noted psychologists in the area of Systems Psychology. All the people are family therapists who have made large contributions to psychology. The four psychologists that are of interest are Salvador Minuchin, Murray Bowen, Carl Whitaker, and Jay Haley. There was an extensive background research done on these four people.
Faculty Sponsor:
Stewart, Larry. OBJECT RELATIONS.
The theorist is Heinz Kohut 1913-1981, Theories pertaining to Narcissism and Self-objects. As a psychoanalyst, investigates the genesis of the self and its disorders. His major focus was the study of narcissism or self-involvement which was viewed as self-infatuation and showed how it could be transformed into a variety of experiences ranging from humor to creativity.
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67 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY24
COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND THEATRE4
CRIMINAL JUSTICE8
NURSING3
PSYCHOLOGY28
EMPIRICAL52
EMPIRICAL STUDY1
HISTORICAL PAPER1
LITERATURE REVIEW4
PERSONALITY PAPER9