Program for the Fall 2010 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Dirnbeck, Richard, Parrott, Hannah, Jeffries, Michael. FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY.
Pigs have been used as human analogs to determine time of death. During the study, pig carcasses were laid in traps in two separate habitats; prairie and forest. One study was conducted in the summer, the other in the fall. Carcasses were monitored daily and insect samples were collected, preserved and put into a voucher series. According to the data collected, the total number of species in each habitat was different between the two studies. We came to the conclusion that the data had a negative, right skewed graph. In general this application can be associated with death investigations.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY

Empirical Projects

Allen, Andrea Miller, Emily. INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Abstract\\\\r\\\\nHydroxy cut and Green Tea pills are widely known and used weight loss supplements. Our purpose was to study the effect of these two diet pills on intestinal epithelial cells (CMT-93). In our experiment we incubated intestinal epithelial cells with hydroxy cut and green tea pills for 48 hours. We had a positive control containing etoposide, which is known to cause apoptosis in cells, and a negative control which was a sample of just the intestinal epithelial cells grown in complete media. We then used DNA fragmentation analysis to observe if the cells had undergone apoptosis, programmed cell death. \\\\r\\\\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Anderson, Tara; Delaney, Brody; Dugger, Tara. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE VERSUS TRICLOSAN IN APOPTOSIS EFFECTIVENESS.
In this experiment we used an Intestinal epithelial cell line (CMT-93) to find whether Triclosan or Lipopolysaccharide was a better apoptosis inducing agent. We also compared whether these treated cells demonstrated more apoptosis in a twelve or twenty-four hour period. Etoposide, a known inducer of apoptosis, was used as the positive control. For the negative control, cells in complete media, untreated with any reagents, were used. The Lipopolysaccharide sample after 24 hours showed better apoptosis results. From this we concluded that Lipopolysaccharide was a better apoptosis inducing agent than Triclosan.
Faculty Sponsor: KRISTEN WALTON
Asher, Kirby; Ueligger, John; Cook, Rich. POLLINATOR NATION.
Pollinator diversity can be affected by numerous variables. In our experiment, we observed different species of insects that visited different flowers. We hypothesized that flower color would affect the species diversity and species richness visiting the plants. We also hypothesized that composite type flowers would attract greater abundance than the single type flowers. A local land owner gave our group permission to study plant pollinators on his property. We collected data by observing plants for a standard amount of time. Each individual that visited the plant was counted and one specimen of each species was collected. A voucher series of flowers was put together as well as a voucher series for the insect species. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS data analysis programs. Results show that there is no statistically significant difference, thus causing us to reject both of our hypotheses.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Conard, Drake; Dow, Brian. INVESTIGATIONAL STUDY OF XYLITOL-INDUCED DAMAGE OF INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS.
The consumption of xylitol by dogs and cats has been a controversial issue. This has surfaced due to the recent panic by dog and cat owners, as it has been suggested that microquantities of xylitol will induce organ failure and subsequent death. Using mammalian intestinal epithelial cell line CMT- 94, the effects of xylitol have been examined including testing for induction of necrosis and apoptosis. Mammalian intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 1mM xylitol and sampled at various time points. The cells were visually inspected throughout the time points, and DNA was assayed by gel electrophoresis. The presence of DNA laddering is considered a sign of apoptosis.
Faculty Sponsor: KRISTEN WALTON
Cozad, Kristin; Shipman, Anna. THE APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF NONI JUICE ON MYOFIBROBLAST CELLS.
The apoptotic effect of noni juice on myofibroblast cells was tested by incubating the cells in different concentrations of noni juice, a negative control, and a positive control. The hypothesis was that noni juice would induce apoptosis in myofibroblast cells. The cultured cells were then collected and the apoptotic activity was analyzed through gel electrophoresis. DNA laddering was observed in the highest concentration of noni juice in media indicating apoptosis occurred.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KRISTEN WALTON
Geiger, Tyeson; Million, Tyler; Wiese, Jacob. BIO 415 MINI PROJECTS: OZARK BLACK LIGHT TRAPS.
Invertebrates are affected by many different variables. In our experiment we traveled to Reis Biological Station near Steelville, MO. Black light traps were set out in five locations in an attempt to observe invertebrate abundance and diversity in the Ozark region of Missouri. Black lights were set out for two days, with collection of specimens each morning. Specimens were then hand sorted and placed into a voucher series were they were added to a data set in order analyze and compare species diversity/abundance.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Gilbert, Amber and Koy, Karen. ZEBRAFISH PATCH FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND THE EFFECT OF RELATIVE RISK.
We studied patch foraging behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including patch choice and movement style, and the role of relative safety in zebrafish foraging. Although much is known about zebrafish biology, ecologists are just beginning to study their foraging behavior. These experiments expand upon work previously restricted to invertebrate species (Koy & Plotnick, 2009 & 2010). The zebrafish were given a choice of two patches of food in the experimental tank. A zebrafish was placed equidistant between two patches of equal density (treatment 1), or two patches of unequal density (treatment 2). Zebrafish were also placed closer to one patch (treatment 3, equal-density patches; treatment 4, closer to the low-density patch; and treatment 5, closer to the high-density patch). The 5 treatments were repeated with the introduction of a ‘safe’ hiding place (plastic plants) next to one of the patches. The results fit in with behaviors previously observed in several invertebrate species.
Faculty Sponsor: KAREN KOY
Haley, Jacob, Wallace, Nicole, Zirkle, Colton. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF TURTLES ON THE CAMPUS OF MWSU: YEAR TWO.
Over the past two years we have marked 60 turtles of four species: 29 Chelydra serpentina, 22 Chrysemys picta, 8 Trachemys scripta, and 1 Apalone spinifera. Based on mark-recapture estimates, we have 100+ turtles living in the nine ponds on campus. We documented one turtle moving between ponds, a distance of about 200m. Our invertebrate samples revealed a negative correlation between turtle species richness and invertebrate abundance, and we captured no turtles or invertebrates in a pond near a construction site. Necropsies of two turtles documented nematode parasites and a painted turtle was carrying 10 shelled and 10 unshelled eggs.
Faculty Sponsor: MILLS, MARK
Hartman, Kurt; Hiley, Shauna; Geiger, Tyeson; Schmuecker, Samantha . IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL ELEMENTS USING PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE IN THE MISSOURI RIVER LOESS HILLS.
The loess hills encompass forested habitats on northeast and northwest facing slopes and prairies on southeast and southwest slopes. We employed portable X-ray fluorescence to characterize soil element distribution. Detectable elements included the following: Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Nb, P, Pb, Rb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zr. Ca and K demonstrated greater quantities in prairie versus forest habitats. K was positively correlated with Si, and Al was positively correlated with K and Si. These data will be used as a chemical element description of the loess hills and to associate correlations with plant distributions.
Faculty Sponsor: KURT HARTMAN
Limle, Benjamyn; Slawson, Anna; Hunt, Samantha. SURVEY OF INVERTEBRATE ORGANISMS AT SQUAW CREEK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE USING COVER-BOARDS.
There is little knowledge of the invertebrate diversity found in Loess Hill ecotypes, particularly focusing on differences in prairie and forest microhabitats. The goal of this project was to analyze those differences by collecting invertebrate organisms found under 65 pairs of cover-boards that were placed along transects equally spaced at 10 meters apart; across 10 different microhabitats in both forest and prairie habitats. A large number of species were collected and classified into 10 different voucher groups. Our results found that there were no statistically significant differences of invertebrate organisms found in prairie microhabitats compared to those found in forest microhabitats, however there were trends in the data that could implicate further research in this topic.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Miller-Tipton, Cody C.; Weis, Jenna. EFFECTS OF NICOTINE ON APOPTOSIS OF MACROPHAGE CELLS.
The effects of nicotine in chewing tobacco have long been associated with the development of cancer. In cancerous cells, normal apoptosis does not take place, allowing the cells to proliferate. To gain some insight on this theory, nicotine was introduced to a macrophage cell line along with a known apoptosis inducing agent. Using two separate experimental cell lines, one was exposed to etoposide only, while the other was exposed to etoposide and nicotine. From both lines samples were collected at four, eight, and twenty-four hours. It was hypothesized that the cell line exposed to nicotine would prevent apoptosis and show no DNA laddering under gel electrophoresis. The other line containing only the etoposide represented a positive control for DNA laddering.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Nolke, Lauren; Eiberger, Emily. APOPTOSIS INDUCING EFFECTS OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ON MACROPHAGES.
Lipopolysaccharide is a toxin released by some bacteria that has a known negative effect on human cells. For this experiment a cultured macrophage cell line was treated with varying doses of lipopolysaccharide and analyzed for the toxin's effects on the cells. Gel electrophoresis was used for analysis because DNA laddering is visible when cells have undergone apoptosis. As a negative control, cells were left in complete media, and not treated with any additional chemicals, and as a positive control, cells were treated with etopside, a known apoptosis inducing agent. The data has not yet been analyzed, but it is predicted that the most DNA laddering will be observed in the cells treated with the most concentrated lipopolysaccharide.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Sale, Abbey; Knadler, Angie; Fagala, Mark. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE ON MYOFIBROBLASTS.
In this experiment we are trying to induce apoptosis in myofibroblasts using cigarette smoke. Apoptosis is programmed cell death that every cell undergoes during stressful/unfavorable conditions, or if the cell has become mutated through exposed mutagens. When the cells undergo apoptosis there are specific phenotypical changes that occur, which include alterations in permeability of the plasma membrane, DNA fragmentation, condensation of chromatin, cell membrane blebbing, and caspase activation. Each phenotypical change can be detected by a certain assay. After the myofibroblasts are exposed to cigarette smoke from a menthol or non-menthol cigarette, apoptosis will be detected by performing a DNA fragmentation analysis. It is expected that the cells treated with smoke from a menthol cigarette will have more cells undergoing apoptosis than the cells treated with smoke from non-menthol cigarette. The results obtained did not match the hypothesis stated. The DNA assay showed no signs of apoptosis. However, when the numbers of live cells were counted versus the number of dead cells, the majority of the cells from each treatment were dead. This finding would result in no apoptosis being detected in a DNA fragmentation assay.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KRISTEN WALTON
Vernon, Will: Davis, Clif: Szczepanki, Bryce. USING E. COLI TO SOLVE THE SAT PROBLEM.
The Satisfiability problem (SAT) is an NP complete problem. In SAT a given set of logical statements are evaluated to see if any combination of the inputs is able to solve the problem. We used novel 5-base anti-codon tRNAs as inputs to try and solve the SAT problem that we encoded as mutations in DNA. If the bacteria solve the problem then they would produce a colored fluorescent protein. We tried two different systems to regulate the expression of the fluorescent proteins, the Lux system and the T7 RNA polymerase.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Davis, Clif; Edwards, Calli; Zhu, Xiao. THE EFFECTS OF UV-LIGHT EXPOSURE ON INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS .
The experiment was to measure apoptosis after exposing the intestinal epithelial cell line CMT-93 to UV light. The exposure time for the UV light was 0,1,2, and 4 minutes. The experiment also included the anti-apoptotic effects of caffeine on these same cells being treated with UV light. DNA laddering can be observed after the process of apoptosis has been carried out by the cells. After the DNA was extracted from the cells, gel electrophoresis was done and failed to show any DNA laddering. The results show that apoptosis did not occur for these specific cells even after being exposed to the UV light for the maximum of 4 minutes
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KRISTEN WALTON

Internship/Practicum Experience

Dirnbeck, Richard. MY INTERNSHIP WITH MISSOURI'S DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
While I was working as a naturalist with Missouri's Department of Natural Resources at Meramec State Park in Sullivan Missouri, I developed and applied skills that will help further my career. One of the skills I used was public speaking, whether it was on cave tours or giving evening programs. I was also involved with studies involving yellow lady slipper orchids and ginseng. I also lead people into the Meramec River talking about the aquatic life that lives in there.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Sallee, Abby. UNIVERSITIES AND FEDERAL AGENCIES:MY INTERNSHIP WITH SQUAW CREEK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE.
Will include my background and experiences as an Interpretive Naturalist with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge.
Faculty Sponsor: CHEVALIER

Literature Reviews

(Marek, Hannah), (Voltmer, Leah), (Mazurkewycz, Misha). QUANTITATIVE SAMPLING OF LEAF LITTER INVERTEBRATES IN SUCCESSIONAL PRAIRIES IN MISSOURI.
Our project compared differences in invertebrate species richness and abundance in three different prairie habitats around Missouri by random leaf litter collections. The first prairie habitat was Otoe Creek at MWSU, a newly established prairie. The second was Tarkio Prairie in Upper Northwest Missouri, which varied in age. The third prairie is located at Reiss Biological Station in the Ozarks, a native prairie. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference for species richness and abundance between all locations, however there was not a significant difference for the Shannon DI. The conclusion is that there is greater species richness and diversity at the Reiss station.
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

Empirical Projects

Drees, Bernadette; Ducey, Michael. MICELLE FORMATION OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS DETERMINED BY 19F NMR.
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are ionic salts with a melting point below 100⁰C and have a growing number of industrial applications. In order to increase this number, understanding the intermolecular interactions is necessary which can be done by finding the critical micelle concentration (CMC). This study analyzes the anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NtF2-) using the solvents chloroform and DMSO. By using 19F NMR spectroscopy, the chemical shift of the fluorine in the anion can be compared to the mole fraction of the RTIL in the solvent at varying concentrations in order to find the CMC.
Faculty Sponsor: DUCEY, MICHAEL

URSI Project

King, Matthew; Turner, Hillary; Caldwell, Benjamin. EXAMINATION OF ESTERASE ACTIVITY BY SERUM ALBUMINS.
Albumins are soluble blood serum proteins well known for binding and transporting fatty acids as well as binding a variety of drugs (aspirin, lidocaine, thyroxine). In the laboratory albumins are also commonly used to stabilize other proteins, as blocking agents (Western blots, immunoprecipitations, etc…) and as protein assay standards. Aside from their ability to bind a wide variety of ligands, albumins are less well known to have latent enzymatic activity. In fact, albumins are able to hydrolyze ester bonds similarly to carboxylesterases. Esterase activity can be easily monitored using p-nitrophenylacetate (pNPA) as a substrate in which the product of hydrolysis absorbs at 410 nm under slightly basic conditions (pH 8.0). Although some enzymatic work has been done on human serum albumin, bovine and chicken egg albumins were compared with human albumin. Overall the kinetics of albumins are considerably slower than esterases, and the relative rates of esterase activity for human, bovine and chicken egg albumins decrease in this order respectively. This assay could be developed as a possible system for use in the biochemistry teaching laboratory. We will demonstrate the potential for albumin as a subject for enzymatic studies by students.
Faculty Sponsor: BEN CALDWELL
Schmuecker, Sami Hiley, Shauna. COMPARISON OF PORTABLE XRF VS. AA FOR THE DERMINATION OF METALS IN ALLOY SAMPLES.
The emergence of handheld X-Ray fluorescence [XRF]analyzers offers a new method for determination of elements with distinct advantages over Atomic Absorption [AA] or EDTA titrations including ease of sample preparation, rapid results, and simultaneous multi-elemental analysis. XRF may be used with solution phase as well as solid phase samples, and offers a wider calibration range than AA. In this project, XRF and AA results for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb in commercially prepared brass samples were compared. Overall assessment of both methods including ease of sampling and precision of results confirmed that XRF would be the preferable method.
Faculty Sponsor: SHAUNA HILEY

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND THEATRE

Empirical Projects

Criss, Jessica. LET'S TALK ABOUT (PREMARITAL) SEX BABY! .
The act of premarital sex isn’t as taboo as it once was. This study examines the perceptions of premarital sex in relation to length of relationship and gender. Background knowledge is asked in the areas of religion, relationship status of parents, media, size of hometown, etc… to determine the influences of decision making about premarital sex. The survey consists of 21 questions and was distributed to 75 students within the Missouri Western State University population.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
Hodges, Thomas. DO NEGATIVE OR NON-NEGATIVE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN ADS HAVE A BETTER CHANCE OF CONVINCING YOUNG VOTERS .
This research was developed in order to understand why people between the ages 18-29 always end up last in voter participation. This study also tries to define insight as to what may motivate this age group to vote. This project will examine certain aspects of their lives and determine if these characteristics share any common ground with what types of political advertising would motivate individuals to vote in elections. With this data, politicians would be able to draw in more votes that could potential win them an election.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
Koch, Jessica. COLLEGIATE ATHLETES VS. NON-ATHLETES: PERCEPTION OF SELF AND OTHERS.
The research that is being conducted is to determine the preceptions that collegiate athletes and non athletes have of themselves and of each other as to university identity. Surveys have been handed out to 50 participants on campus of Missouri Western State University.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. TAPIA
Neher, Lindsey. PERCEPTIONS OF BRAND BASED ON MUSIC IN TARGET COMMERCIALS.
The relationship between music in television commercials and perception of the brand portrayed in the commercial is a topic worth researching. This study examines the relationship between music in Target store commercials and perception of the Target brand by showing one Target commercial with a specific genre of music to one class, and another commercial with a different genre of music to another class. The classes filled out a survey and another general survey will be given to a class without showing a commercial. The results will be compared.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JOHN TAPIA
Oliver, Jodi. WHEN THERE IS SMOKE THERE\\\'S FIRE, BUT HOW DOES IT START?.
The purpose of this study is to investigate Missouri Western State University student’s perceptions of health risks and smoking to develop an effective anti-smoking campaign. College is the time when students are trying a range of tobacco products. This puts them in danger of developing lifelong nicotine dependence. The goal of this study is to survey current students of Missouri Western State University about their smoking habits, motivations to quit, and perceptions and level of importance of risks.
Faculty Sponsor: TAPIA
Penland, Kori. PERCIEVED STRESS LEVELS AND SOCIAL SUPPORT.
I am researching the perceived stress levels of college students in relationship to perceived social support and demographic data such as age, income, ethnicity, gender, class standing, and number of children one has. My survey includes a measurement of perceived stress level, social support, and demographic questions, to psychology and communication classes. The data determines the correlation level among the variables I have chosen.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
Rhodes, Autumn. COMMERCIAL USE OF STEREOTYPES; DO YOU WANT TO BE A GUY OR A GAL?.
The purpose of this study is to assess the different gender perceptions of stereotypes in commercials. It includes facts about how stereotypes of men and women are presented through advertisements in order to be funny or adhere to a certain target market. The project included handing out a survey to male and female MWSU students aged 17-34. The survey asked the participants their opinions of how they felt about stereotypes that have been defined through research.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
Roberts, Jessica. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR SPEECH COMMUNICATION MAJORS.
The communication studies department has developed a set of learning outcomes expected for all students. We created a pretest/posttest to help assess whether students are learning these outcomes. The test is to be given to students entering the program and upon graduation. Questions for the test were selected from previous research projects and preliminary tests.
Faculty Sponsor: TAPIA, JOHN
Sager, Hannah . WHISTLE WHILE YOU WORK?.
I am studying the relationship between job type and job morale. In this study, I distributed surveys to part time and full time workers at a mid-priced clothing store and a local nursing home. The surveys asked how much stress affects them at work, and how much stress they have experienced in life, as well as their education level to tell me how likely they are to be dependent on this job in the future. My hypothesis is that the part time nursing home and the full time retail workers would be happiest with their jobs.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
St. Cyr, Don. HOW TO MAKE EMAIL A CLEAR, EFFECTIVE AND TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION TOOL.
Email can be an effective communications tool but it sometimes complicates rather than clarifies the intended message. As a primary two-way communications tool that is used throughout the world, it is important that workers know how to get their intent across. This study examines what makes an email message clear and concise while still relaying the necessary information accurately.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JOHN TAPIA
Stuck, Ryan. EFFECTS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE NONVERBAL CUES ON COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION.
For years we have been trying to invent new ways to understand, remedy, and even prevent the communication anxiety syndrome known as Communication Apprehension. This is a study, as the title suggests, on the effects of positive and negative nonverbal cues on Communication Apprehension (CA), specifically state anxiety associated with CA. This is an important aspect into understanding how to help those with high levels of CA. It is becoming evident that CA is becoming more and more of a problem with America’s youth. There have been studies done trying to understand what brings on CA, what events or communication patterns affect CA, different ways to help individuals cope with or remedy CA, and so much more. The aspect dealt with in this study is one that is of growing interest to the communication community, that of nonverbal communication. The goal of this study is to help teachers and others understand how the use nonverbal cues to either help or hinder CA.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JOHN TAPIA

Graduate Student Research

Hart, Devin. AMERICAN MANUFACTURING: PREPARING STUDENTS TODAY FOR TOMORROW.
Manufacturing in America has gone through many changes. Educators must continually adapt to these changes to better prepare students for the workforce. This case study focuses on the Manufacturing Engineering Technology Program at MWSU. The role of the program and faculty in preparing engineering students for the manufacturing industry is compared to current research in the field. The response to a changing manufacturing environment, connection to the industry, curriculum content/selection, and teaching methods are analyzed. Faculty/student surveys have been administered to determine how the program at MWSU is responding to manufacturing changes.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA
Jackson, Melissa. THE BIG FIVE, SENSE OF HUMOR, AND PERCEIVED STRESS ALL WALK INTO A CONFERENCE ROOM.
The dynamic of a group can shape the success or failure of the task at hand. The following study examines the relationship between humor, stress, and personality in terms of workplace communication. Understanding the relationship between personality and other personality driven characteristics can provide valuable insight about successful group member interaction, including misunderstanding, tension, and personality conflicts. Using 1.) Big Five personality survey, 2.) Sense of Humor Survey, and 3.) Perceived Stress Scale, this study attempts to gain an understanding of the mediating role between personality, humor, and stress.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JOHN TAPIA
Kragel, Jeanette. UNDERGRADUATE TEAMWORK SKILLS: FROM FIRST YEAR TO THE WORKFORCE.
The purpose of this study is to assess the interpersonal communication skills of current college students in comparison to those in the workforce with a focus on the skills associated with teamwork. This information can be useful to those seeking to enhance classroom experiences. Though skills practiced in the classroom are applicable in a professional setting, students may not make the connection between classroom team experiences and personal work competence. Making such a connection is an important factor in improving team performance and skills.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA, PHD
Lattupally, Nikhil. MAKING YOUR POINT .
Public speaking skills are important for any professional in any field. There are many suggestions made by research papers, books, and experts in the field about how to be a better public speaker. In an ideal situation, all of them are useful and necessary. But when the presenter is stressed, he/she can concentrate only on a few things. This paper does a ranking study to identify the most important skills in four categories-- 1) qualities in a presenter,2) qualities in a PowerPoint presentation, 3) qualities in a presentation and 4) things that a presenter should avoid.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JOHN TAPIA

Historical Papers

Oliver, Jodi. QUINTILIAN: THE OVERLOOKED ORATOR.
Today, readers of classical rhetoric may only think of great works from names like Aristotle, Plato, Cicero and Caesar because their contributions to rhetoric have cast a shadow over others. Quintilian’s appointment as professor by the chief of state was the last major shift in Roman prejudices of Greek influence in rhetoric. Quintilian, who was not as well known for being a state teacher of oratory in Rome as he was for his great work, Institutio Oratorio or Education of an Orator – a 12 book system of rhetoric. This paper will provide a glimpse into the life of Quintilian as a Roman educator and the significance of his contributions to education and rhetoric.
Faculty Sponsor: TAPIA

Literature Reviews

Keller, Cortney. THE EFFECTS GENDER, AGE, AND RELATIONSHIPS: TO LOVE OR NOT TO LOVE.
This research project is comparing the perceptions of relationships based on gender in college in students aged 18-25. A research paper has been completed showing the major differences between the two genders are importance of physical attractiveness, number of sexual partners, and how jealousy is interpreted through attachment to a partner. A survey has then been distributed students at Missouri Western State University inquiring their opinions about romantic relationships. The results showed that during the age range from 18-15 male and females view romantic relationships differently.
Faculty Sponsor: JOHN TAPIA

DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Empirical Projects

Dierenfeldt, Ricki Dale. SURVEY ON THE FEAR OF CRIME AND CONCEALED WEAPON.
The debate over allowing the concealed weapons on college campuses continues in the political arena. However, little attention has been given to the actual carrying of concealed weapons among college students even though it is banned in the majority of college campuses. Previous studies on the carrying of concealed weapons have been done mostly against high school students. Those studies reported that the fear of crime victimization, the involvement to the delinquent or criminal behavior, and the gang involvement were main factors which led to the carrying of concealed weapons. Current study examines factors to explain the carrying of concealed weapons among the MWSU students.
Faculty Sponsor: HYUNSEOK JANG, PH.D.

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

Empirical Projects

Halderman, Corey|Baumann, Gary|Brown, Margaret|McDonough, Alexa. CREDIT CARD DEBT AND THE STUDENT: ANALYSIS OF MARKETING AND PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR.
Credit cards are marketed directly towards many people, including young adults, and in particular college students. Why would the credit card industry opt for this marketing strategy? The answer involves many diverse factors which will each be explained, linked, and verified in a variety of case studies. The research will give a clear understanding of credit card misuse with students, and provide general counsel applicable to the youth. The positive contribution of this study will be in explaining helpful strategy and behavior when using a credit card for the first time, especially as a youth.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. REZA HAMZAEE

Graduate Student Research

Hart, Devin; Kotaru, Ajay; Uduthala, Srinivas; Vockery, Will. MWSU: PARKING PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS.
Over the past several years, increased enrollment at MWSU has created a growing parking problem. President Vartabedian claimed that parking is the most-complained-about issue and that fall of 2011 might be the breaking point. What is the most feasible solution to the problem considering MWSU’s tight budget? A parking garage, expanding existing lots, satellite parking with a shuttle, and expanding class schedules are possible solutions. MWSU students, faculty, and staff are surveyed to help determine the best solution. A multiple statistical approach of data analysis will be adopted. The results of this research can help guide MWSU in improving parking as the campus continues to draw more students.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. REZA HAMZAEE

Literature Reviews

Rodgers, Victoria; Chowdhury, Sujoy Kumar; Pickerel, Sara. JUSTIFYING COSTS IN USABILITY TESTING.
Products undergoing early and iterative usability analysis enter the market with higher quality, which reduces redesign costs. However, this may increase the time overhead and capital expenditure of projects. It is important for project managers to understand and quantify the costs and benefits associated with usability analysis. In addition, they need to identify the optimal usability process depending on the scale, scope, timeline, and budget for each project. This paper provides justification for the cost of usability analysis based on existing research data from industry. It also identifies the trade-offs associated with this analysis that arise from contextual constraints.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. REZA HAMZAEE
Davis, Tyler; Grgic, Joseph; Miller, Ryan; Pellersels, Jennifer; Wynn Jody. ECONOMIES OF SCOPE FOR SMALL FARMS.
Large commercial farms within the U.S. are replacing small farms because of economies of scope. Small farms in the U.S. face difficulty competing with large farms due to their limited capital and technical resources. Small farms are important because they support the local economy and are more environmentally friendly than large commercial farms. Based on previous research, one strategy for small farms to compete with large farms is to utilize economies of scope. Economies of scope exist when the total cost for producing two types of outputs together is less than the total cost of producing each type of output separately. We suggest that small farms within the U.S. can utilize economies of scope to remain profitable.\r\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR. REZA HAMZAEE

URSI Project

Hamzaee, Reza G.; Baber, Jake. ETHICS & MARKET ECONOMIC SYSTEM.
In response to a clear problem revealing in everyday life in how market economic system, as one of the most efficient systems, experienced in the world, could be regulated and saved from the greedy capitalists, this research project is designed. Capitalism without a series of ethical standards and principles, practically implemented on a regular basis, may end up with social unrest, violence, more crime, and even wars among nations. A sustainable economically-free society needs its ethical foundations to be established and continuously re-engineered. This paper involved building an economic framework to be tested and analyzed. There will be an empirical examination of the model through survey and reliance on some published data and literature. The statistical method to be applied here will include cross-sectional examination of the data through some correlation and multiple regression procedures.
Faculty Sponsor: REZA HAMZAEE

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND JOURNALISM

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Dr. Robert Bergland, Dave Hon. CONVERGENCE AND ACEJMC-ACCREDITED UNIVERSITIES: A 2010 PROGRAM ANALYSIS.
Journalism is in a state of change. The way news sources distribute their content is shifting from print to online. The question remains though, are journalism education programs teaching toward this changing trend? In our study we analyzed the 113 ACEJMC accredited journalism programs to determine just how converged they really are. We analyzed these programs through online data and making a data matrix from the online information about the program. A survey method was considered, but due to the unreliability and low return rates on surveys we decided to rely on the program’s information presented on the web. Besides looking for convergence, our study also breaks down how these programs are converged via broadcast, video, audio, or other new media technologies. Our findings concluded that these programs are still in a state of convergence, while some are not converged at all. As well as still converging, we determined that the programs teach several different types of new media, and are giving students a broad range of skills.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ROBERT BERGLAND
Dillon, Lauren. MULTIMEDIA CONTENT OF SPANISH NEWSPAPERS.
This study researched components from multimedia websites of Spanish newspapers. This information is important for the field of journalism and convergent media because information or studies done on the subject are few. Searches on the Internet yielded not many articles for research, thus it was beneficial to do a study on newspapers from Spain and their websites for other researchers to use in their own studies. The main goal of the research was to discover which newspapers have multimedia and interactive features on their website and which features they have compared to other newspapers in Spain. By using a one-pass system, the websites were deeply analyzed for accuracy. Using a checklist, mostly pre-made by another group of researchers with some additions, the websites were searched for if they had the certain components that were on the checklist, such as photo galleries or comment boxes for articles. Some of the additions include social networking tools and a new distribution feature.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BERGLAND

Empirical Projects

Oliver, Jodi Burbach, Lauren. SACRED SPACE: FRONT PAGE ADVERTISING ON U.S. AND EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS.
Until recently a U.S. newspapers front-page was considered sacred; therefore, advertising on the front-page was almost nonexistent. Research has shown that European newspapers have always run front-page advertising. With declining circulation numbers and the accompanying declining ad revenue in the past several years, more and more newspapers have resorted to placing advertisements on that prime real estate of the newspaper in order to boost revenues. While many U.S. newspapers still do not put ads on the front, the top three circulation newspapers–USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, and starting in 2009, even the New York Times–do run front-page advertisements. The purpose of our study was to compare front-page advertising in the United States to newspapers in Europe.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BERGLAND

Graduate Student Research

Callaway, Whitney. MULTIMEDIA AND INTERACTIVE FEATURES ON AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND NEWSPAPER WEBSITES.
A content analysis using a two-pass system was conducted to determine what interactive and multimedia features are offered on Australian and New Zealand newspaper websites. Using Hasan and Hasim’s content analysis of 12 Australian newspaper homepages as a basis for this study, a more in-depth and broader approach was used in our study by exploring the entire website of all Australian newspaper websites along with New Zealand newspaper websites. The features examined included video, audio slideshows, picture gallery, RSS feeds, e-mail article, recommend/rate article, social network sharing, e-editions, email/mobile news alerts, as well as other features.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ROBERT BERGLAND
Hartley, Stephanie and Chastain, Amy . THE DAILY BLOGGING: A LOOK AT THE TOP 100 CIRCULATION NEWSPAPERS USE OF BLOGGING.
Blogs are quickly becoming a section for online newspapers, yet this latest step in convergent journalism has only been researched generally. Our study looks specifically at how the top 100 circulation newspapers use blogs to connect with their readers. We examine is how, through this technology, journalists interact with users. We used a single pass method to observe what kinds of blogs these newspapers utilize, what specific features they include and made note of the trends being established across the field. This research provides a baseline evaluation and analysis of blogging among most circulated newspaper journalists. The trends established now are shaping convergent journalism and the role media will play in the future.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BERGLAND
Kragel, Jeanette and Scholz, Ross. THE PREVALENCE OF ADVERTISING: A 2010 LOOK AT E-NEWSPAPER HOME PAGES.
Online readership has contributed to an already declining newspaper circulation, leading to lower profits. Newspapers have turned to online advertising to make up the difference. To gain a greater perspective of the current online newspaper advertisement trends, we reviewed the front page of the top 100 U.S. newspapers, looking at the type and frequency of advertisements. Little in depth research has been completed in the relatively new area, so the results shed light on this growing trend in advertising and set a benchmark for future research.
Faculty Sponsor: ROBERT BERGLAND, PHD

DEPARTMENT OF GOVERNMENT SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIOLOGY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Johnson, Amanda. BUYING THE GAVEL .
Citizens and politicians have attempted to limit lobbying for elected \r\n\\r\\nofficials. Yet, there are currently no limitations on lobbying in \r\n\\r\\nfederal courts. Millions of dollars from special interest groups \r\ngo to \\r\\nfederal judges every year in the form of free trips, gifts, \r\nand \\r\\nfoundation donations. In turn, judges have issued rulings \r\nfavorable \\r\\nto the special interests that lobby them particularly \r\nwith \\r\\nenvironmental protection. Federal judges receive all \r\nexpense paid \\r\\ntrips to resorts where they are ‘educated’ on \r\nenvironmental policy. \\r\\nThe result? Federal courts have struck \r\ndown and limited regulation \\r\\nfor environmental protection. \r\nChemical dumping, and high smog \\r\\nemission are completely \r\nlegal in America. One verdict affects the \\r\\nhealth of everyday \r\ncitizens- with cancer and infertility rates on the \\r\\nrise.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ALI KAMALI

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

Empirical Projects

Antas, Linda and Carter, Susan. THE EFFECTS OF BROAD-SPECTRUM SOUND EXPOSURE ON VOCAL RESONANCE IN THE UNIVERSITY SINGER.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the spectrum of the singing voice can be affected and improved by exposing vocalists to frequency-rich sounds such as a gong. The study utilized fifteen University-level singers. Vocalists sang the vowels [a], [e], [i], [o], and [u] for all 12 chromatic pitches from C4 through A4 for women and C3 to C4 for men. The vocal exercise was repeated after a 20-minute gong resonance immersion. Recordings of the before and after sessions were analyzed and compared. The data showed that after gong exposure, spectral energy was more focused toward essential components such as vowel formants and harmonic series frequencies.
Faculty Sponsor:

DEPARTMENT OF NURSING

Empirical Projects

Kulhman, Brandi; Anderson, Katie; Brewer, Hannah; Kreidler, Kayleigh. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING OF THE CHRISTIAN WOMEN'S FORGIVENESS MEASURE (CWFM).
Data collection for the Christian Women’s Forgiveness Measure (CWFM) occurred during the fall semester. Eighty-six out of 100 data sets were collected. Analysis will occur next semester after the remaining data sets have been collected. The measure consists of five subscales: What Forgiveness is Not, Women and Christianity, Steps Towards Forgiveness, Battered Women and Christianity, and Forgiveness and Health. Psychometric testing will be conducted using SPSS. Specifically item analysis, and truncated principal components factor analysis with Varimax rotation results will be examined. The CWFM will be utilized along with Enright’s Forgiveness Inventory in future studies involving Christian women.
Faculty Sponsor: GRETCHEN QUENSTEDT-MOE
Yeh, Pi-Ming; Harrelson, Karen; Lo , Hnue; Moore, Phyllis; Wilmes, Jessica. FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY CAREGIVER BURDEN IN THE HOSPITAL IN USA.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among patients’ ADL dependence, symptoms, family support, quality of patient-family caregiver relationship, psychological well-being, caregiving knowledge and burden of family caregivers for patients with cancer or chronic illness. There were 110 family caregivers recruited from medical and surgical units. The mean age of family caregivers was 54.02 years. The majority of caregivers were wife. The mean age of patients was 64.68 years. A multivariate descriptive design was used. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. The findings indicated that there were significant relationships between family caregiver burden and the independent variables.
Faculty Sponsor: YEH, PI-MING

Literature Reviews

Cerniglia, Angela and Kukuc, Laura. NEUROPROTECTION OF MILD HYPOTHERMIA FOLLOWING CARDIAC ARREST.
Therapeutic hypothermia may improve neurological outcomes for patients following cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest carries a high mortality rate in many countries and for those that survive, many will suffer permanent neurological damage related to a cascade of damage due to hypoxia. Major studies have been conducted to determine the effects of temperature on the neurological outcome of survivors of cardiac arrest. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has shown significantly improved neurological functioning and is suggested to be a standard of care for patients following cardiac arrest by multiple methods of implementation. Nurses have a major role in implementing hypothermic treatment, monitoring patients undergoing the process, and developing protocols that will meet guidelines in specific clinical settings.
Faculty Sponsor: HEATHER KENDALL RN, MSN, CCRN-CMC-CSC
Kemper, Courtney; Rasmussen, Lauren; Sten, Stephanie; Svoboda, Lesley. STIS IN ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSERS.
Substance abuse, often leading to risky sexual behaviors, is widespread among adolescents. According to the CDC (2010), “among the 34.2% of currently sexually active [adolescents] nationwide, 21.6% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse” (p. 23). These co-occurring health risk behaviors should be considered a major issue in our society. Improved education programs which correlate sexual health and substance abuse are essential in order to decrease the risky sexual behavior associated with substance abuse in the adolescent population. Nurses have the unique opportunity to establish rapport with adolescents, build a trusting relationship, and see the outcome(s) through.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CRISTI CAMPBELL

URSI Project

Gregory, Jennifer, and Ellis, Deborah. HEALTH LITERACY, GLUCOSE CONTROL AND SELF MANAGEMENT IN LOW SOCIOECONOMIC TYPE 2 DIABETICS.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, glycosated hemoglobin, body mass index, cholesterol levels, blood pressure levels and diabetic self-care management. The sample size was 55 Type 2 Diabetics from a free clinic in a Midwestern city. Participants were administered the STOFHLA to assess for Health Literacy level. The Diabetic Self-Care Activities Survey was also administered to assess patient's self reported management of diabetes. Lab values were also obtained. Thirty-six percent of the population was 42-50 years of age, with 27.3% being 51-60 years of age. In this sample, 52.7% were taking oral medications, 18.2% using injectable insulin and 29% using both types of medications to control their disease. In this study health literacy had no correlation on glucose or other parameters. A positive correlation existed between weight and body mass index. A positive correlation also existed between glycosated hemoglobin and total cholesterol. Positive correlations within the Diabetic Self Care Activities were present involving diet, exercise, and foot care.
Faculty Sponsor: DEBORAH ELLIS, RN, MSN, NP-C

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Anderson, Austin Carr, David . MORTALITY SALIENCE, DEATH ANXIETY, AND MORAL REASONING.
Moral decision-making is often facilitated by means of rational determinations as well as intuitive emotional processes. We examined the effects of mortality salience on moral reasoning. Participants (N= 132) were randomly assigned to either a mortality salient group or a control. Subjects were then asked to respond to a moral dilemma. Analysis showed varying effects of gender and anxiety in their responses to the dilemma. Females in the experimental condition were more utilitarian in their decision making, while men stayed relatively the same, and high levels of anxiety were found to be a strong factor in making the utilitarian decision.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. PHILLIP WANN
Armilio, Michelle Barger, Megan. 1920'S: A DECADE OF PSYCHOLOGY.
The 1920’s was a decade of discovery in psychology. From John B. Watson’s “Little Albert” study in 1920 to Manfred Sakel’s insulin shock therapy in 1927. Psychology could stand on its own as a science. From these discoveries we now know of theories such as, how a child’s mind is different from adult, different personality traits, and that emotional responses can be classically conditioned. Not only did this impact the 1920’s and the present, but these theories will be an influence on psychology for a long time to come.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Frazier, Alyson. THE INTERESTING TIMES OF PSYCHOLOGY.
In the 1900’s, there came a significant amount of different zeitgeist changes along with psychologist and philosophers who took advantage of the ability to express themselves. There were many people who were not afraid to think outside the box. With the ideas being introduced and expressed during this time is how and when people such as Freud, John B. Watson and James Angell came about. This paper will discuss the psychologist and philosophers of the time, who rather or not brought something significant to psychology, made impacts on psychology. These same people are those who are still being spoken about today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. PHILLIP WANN
Frazier, Alyson. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CARL ROGERS TO PSYCHOLOGY.
In recent years, people have known counseling psychology as a social science and its purpose to be to fix people. However, because of Carl Rogers, some are able to gain a different perspective of what counseling psychology could be about. With Carl Rogers theory, it introduces an approach that clients are able to feel comfortable with in making their own decision due to having a comfortable relationship with the therapist. This poster will describe some of the basics of Rogers theories and how Roger feels a person should be after his approach if done is a successful manner.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGER
Green, L\\\'Chelle. ROLLO MAY ON EXISTENTIALISM AND PSYCHOANALYSIS.
Will Present Information about Rollo May and what his theories were about when it pertained to Anxiety, Stress, Love, Courage, and Human Dilemma.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Long, Todd. Peters, Jillian. Powell, Amanda. BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER.
To B.F. Skinner the idea of personality is moot. The emphasis needs to be places on the external environment, not internal markers. Skinner was influenced on his research by E.L. Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. Skinner created his own philosophy called Operant Conditioning which is when an association is formed between a behavior and a consequence. Arranging a reinforcing consequence increases the rate at which a response will occur. Skinner gave three different types of reinforcements and five different reinforcement schedules. Skinner developed a piece of equipment to test his philosophy of Operant Conditioning; the equipment is called the Skinner Box.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Makos, Timothy, Rock, Cameron. THE LIFE AND THEORIES OF ALFRED ADLER.
Timothy Makos Cameron Rock Abstract Alfred Adler was born on February 7th, 1870 in the suburbs of Vienna. Alfred did not walk until he was four, as the result of rickets, and nearly died of pneumonia at the age of five. These events in his early childhood are what caused him to become a physician. Adler began his career as an ophthalmologist, then switching to general practice, and eventually working with Freud and Jung as a psychologist. His most known psychological accomplishments were the creation of the terms inferiority complex, superiority complex, and fictional finalism. Alfred Adler died on May 28th, 1937.
Faculty Sponsor: JAMES BARGAR
Anderson, Austin; Barger, Megan; Donaldson, Tricia; Long, Todd; Regan, Sarah; Smith, Rachel, . LIFE OR DEATH? HOW DOES RELIGIOSITY AFFECT THE PERCEPTION OF SYMBOLS WHEN MORTALITY IS SALIENT?.
Introductory Psychology Students (N= 156) were randomly assigned to a mortality salient or a control group. Participants were shown 3 sets of slides consisting of 15 symbols each. The participants were asked to rate the symbols on a five-point scales for each set of slides The first set was rated on a negative/positive scale , discomfort/comfort ratings for the second and fear/ease for the third. The participants were also evaluated for their level of intrinsic religiousness. Significant differences were found between those who were high and low in intrinsic religiousness and in their rating of the symbols.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. TEDDI DEKA
Spitzer, Brett A.. THE 1950’S: A TIME OF TRANSITION IN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE WORLD.
A decade with much turmoil and change, the 1950’s choose the new path psychology would endure. From behaviorism to humanism the swap of schools sustained new ideas that brought the young science into the modern era. Theorists and scholars alike discovered new ways to describe and manipulate the population of the most powerful nation. Studies changed the landscape of our thought and also our hearts. With a sense of higher purpose many other forms of psychology would branch off innovations in this decade. Marching into the next decade, the world was changed and ready to begin protesting authority.
Faculty Sponsor: PHILIP WANN PH.D.
Vey, Michelle. A BRIEF HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY DURING THE 1870’S.
Psychology became an official science in the decade of the 1870’s. The 1870’s was a time when physiological explanations and explorations in psychology were suggested and in practice. One contributor to purpose explanations was Wilhelm Wundt with his book Principles of Physiological Psychology and his first psychology research lab at Leipzig University in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt wasn’t the only influential person embracing the zeitgeist of experimentation of the time. Carl Wernicke (Wernicke’s aphasia), Fritsch and Hitzig (electrical stimulation method), David Ferrier (lesion and stimulation method), Herman Helmholtz (nerve impulse), were also great experimenters and influences of psychology.
Faculty Sponsor:
Wharton, Jacob; Blaylock, Clarisha; Holbrook, Lisa; Carr, David; Fisher, Andrew. LIE DETECTION, EYE TRACKING, AND NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING.
In our study we investigated the common belief that when we are deceptive we look down and to the left. This experiment utilized an eye tracker to determine where our participant’s pupils were looking. In our study we found that when we deceive we do look down, and to the left, however the effect size is small (r^2=.065 for down) especially for looking left (r^2 =.006 for looking left). While our results were significant this method of lie detection is not useful for practical testing.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BRIAN CRONK

Historical Papers

Alfred, Latashia and Lindsey Morales. THE ZEITGEIST OF THE 1970'S AND HOW IT INFLUENCES MODERN PSYCHOLOGY.
This poster will include a summary of events that took place in the 1970's. These major influences of the time lead to the development of methods used in modern counseling. The poster will also have a strong focus on problems experienced by Vietnam soldiers returning home to America. We will also discuss symptoms and treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as well as substance abuse and how B. F. Skinner’s theories contributed to treatments used today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Anderson, Austin. FROM BEHAVIORISM TO HUMANISM: A BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THE 1950’S IN PSYCHOLOGY.
Behaviorism consisted of the thought that all acting, thinking, and feeling could be reduced to behaviors that could be explained by a reward/punishment perspective. The beginning of the divergence away from behaviorism led to a holistic psychology that depended more on investigations of meaning, values, freedom, tragedy, personal responsibility, human potential, Spirituality, and self-actualization. An examination of the events and the individuals that may have perpetuated this shift, as well as an evaluation of the influence that psychology of this era may have had on contemporary psychology will be evaluative.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. PHILLIP WANN
Blaylock, Clarisha L.. A GLANCE AT PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1940S.
The 1940s were a volatile time in the world’s history. With America just coming out of the great depression, and Hitler rising to power in Germany, the 40s were not a characterless period. This presentation discusses important psychological events and findings and how they intertwined and harmonize with the zeitgeists of this time. The life and works of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers will be examined thoroughly and discussed.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Bolten, Jamie Rose, Robin. THE SIXTIES AND PSYCHOLOGY: A MODERN LOOK AT PAST DISCOVERIES.
In this paper we look at important and impacting events of the 1960’s and the new ideas burgeoning in the field of psychology. The Sixties were a time of change and revolution in America. Important historical events and people emerged during this revolutionary time. Events such as the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement, and people like Martin Luther King Jr. and President John F. Kennedy were a major part in this decade. Prominent psychologist Carl Rogers published another book titled, “On Becoming a Person”. Other psychologists like Bandura, Kolberg, and Berry also published important work in the field of psychology during this decade.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Boos, Bobbi. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 1880 THROUGH 1890.
This paper examines the trends and theories of psychology during the eighteen eighties. The primary focus of the paper is on the area of experimental psychology and the psychologists who had the most influence during the decade. The paper examines the major theories of the decade and how the people and ideas of the time influence psychology as a science today.
Faculty Sponsor: PHILLIP WANN
Donaldson, Tricia. A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1930’S.
In the 1930’s the field of psychology continues to develop in many areas including behaviorism and Gestalt psychology.This poster will discuss the key researchers of behaviorism and Gestalt psychology including Edward Tolman, B.F. Skinner, Kurt Koffka and Kurt Lewin. It will also discuss the researchers main ideas and studies in the 1930's along with an overview of the zeitgeist of this decade including Hitler's rise to power and its effects.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Frazier, Alyson. THE INTERESTING TIMES OF PSYCHOLOGY: 1900-1910.
In the 1900’s, there came a significant amount of different zeitgeist changes along with psychologist and philosophers who took advantage of the ability to express themselves. There were many people who were not afraid to think outside the box. With the ideas being introduced and expressed during this time is how and when people such as Freud, John B. Watson and James Angell came about. This paper will discuss the psychologist and philosophers of the time, who rather or not brought something significant to psychology, made impacts on psychology. These same people are those who are still being spoken about today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. PHILLIP WANN
Griffin, Jennifer. THE 1970S: A SHIFT TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY.
In order to understand the cognitive revolution in psychology, the first thing to do is to gain perspective on the issue. In the decade preceding cognitive psychology, the psychological approach that was most popular was Behaviorism. Section 1 of this poster explores Behaviorism in the hopes that it provides an understanding of its foundations. Section 2 describes how cognitive psychology was propelled into popularity in the 1970s and provides a comparison of the two approaches. Finally, section 3 outlines several research topics that are of interest to cognitive psychologists. In each subsection, research conducted in the 1970s and key researchers of the field are discussed.
Faculty Sponsor: PHILLIP WANN
Harper, La'Shoya. THE MONEY ERA (80S DECADE).
The 80's was a time of money, spending money was a major ordeal. There were lots of worldly events that impacted the world, such as AIDs, the introduction to personal computers and the Human Genome Project. Psychology had so much work to do to perpare for all the different changes emerging. Psychologist like Albert Bandura had their run throughout the 80s with theories such as social cognitive theory and self efficacy. So many things are different now but all the things of the 80s opened up a wide window of opportunities to us today.
Faculty Sponsor: PHILLIP WANN
McGuire, Vanessa. MAJOR SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY FROM 1900-1909.
At the beginning of the 20th century psychology was a mere 50 years old and its first school of thought, Structuralism, was slowly on its way out as Psychoanalysis and Functionalism were on their way in to replace it. Structuralism, as defined in A History of Modern Psychology, was E.B. Titchener’s system of psychology which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons. And lastly, Psychoanalysis was Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality and system of psychotherapy. These three schools are the ones that will be focused on in this paper and the people who contributed to them.
Faculty Sponsor: PHIL WANN
Morgan, Rebecca. THE MAIN IDEAS AND EVENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1910S.
The 1910s was not a dull period in psychology. Freud's school of psychoanalysis was at its height. Behaviorism was just starting to gather steam in the latter part of the decade. Psychology in the 1910s, however, also had a darker side. Eugenics was an idea that had become popular with many people in psychology, such as H. H. Goddard. The wheels were set in motion for both sterilization laws and immigration quotas during this decade, thanks to data Goddard gathered with both the Kallikak study and the intelligence testing of immigrants at Ellis island.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Powell, Amanda. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1980S.
The 1980s was a time to examine personality. Tests were formed and revised to consider the types of differences between intelligences and backgrounds. Mental capacity was a heavy factor in the steps psychology took during this decade. Tests using the Five Factor Model and theories on intelligence are still in circulation in the twenty-first century.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WANN
Wharton, Jacob; Fisher, Andrew. IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1910S.
This paper discusses the main contributions to Psychology during the 1910s. We discuss the development of intelligence tests and how Alfred Binet, H. H. Godard, and Lewis Terman played a key role in its creation. We explain how Psychoanalysis changed during this decade with the separation of Jung and Adler from Freud. We talk about Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer in the development of Industrial/Organizational Psychology. We then discuss Edward Thorndike and John Watson and how their work helped establish the behavioristic approach to psychology that has shaped many different areas of psychology today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. PHIL WANN
Whittington, Ashley. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1890'S.
In the decade of the 1890’s psychology had some major events and theories that changed psychology as we know it. One of the greatest psychologists of all time, Williams James, had a lot of founding moments in that decade. Along with other great psychologists their work is still continued and being taught today. Along with the great psychologists came great contributions. Williams James contributed a book that changed many people’s views. While someone like Lightner Witmer opened the first psychological clinic. These are only few of the things that psychology as a new science has established today.
Faculty Sponsor: WANN

Literature Reviews

Harper, La'Shoya. THE MONEY ERA (80'S DECADE).
The 80's was a time of money, spending money was a major ordeal. There were lots of worldly events that impacted the world, such as AIDs, the introduction to personal computers and the Human Genome Project. Psychology had so much work to do to perpare for all the different changes emerging. Psychologist like Albert Bandura had their run throughout the 80s with theories such as social cognitive theory and self efficacy. So many things are different now but all the things of the 80s opened up a wide window of opportunities to us today.
Faculty Sponsor: PHILLIP WANN

Personality Papers

Boan, Erica Powell, Stephanie Fish, Michelle. ERIK ERIKSON AND PERSONALITY.
Erik Erikson was a German psychologist who studied in detail the development in the child. He also went on to study people in their old age and compared children of different cultures to see the differences culture had on their development. He created psychosocial stages that went on to produce one’s identity later on in life.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGER
Stillman, Briana. OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY.
The purpose of this research is to explain the different theorists of object relations. Object relations theory describes an inborn drive to develop and sustain human relationships. Theorists believe that from birth, individuals seek to develop human relationships and form attachments that may help or negatively affect their development. Klein started from Freud and developed her own approach to object relations. She believed that drives are psychological forces that seek people as their objects. Klein also believed that children who did not receive proper mothering retreated into a world of fantasy objects used to gratify their need for real objects and relationships. Margaret Mahler emphasized the importance of environment on children. She developed a theory for the developmental phases of children. Nancy Chodorow studied the object relations theory for the feminists and social theory. She believed that the early relationships between a child and mother created a foundation for future parenting in both sexes. Heinz Kohut placed an emphasis on meeting early infantile needs. He developed a very specific self-theory. Kohut believed children need to be mirrored and aware of whom they are.
Faculty Sponsor:
Cox, Tara. THE WORLD OF DREAMING: FREUD V JUNG.
This poster is an overview of two theories surrounding dreams and how we tend to analyze them. It explores Sigmund Freud's book The Interpretation of Dreams and Carl Jung's theory of the collective unconscious. This poster will show how the two theories are different and how they are similar.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JAMES BARGAR
Creekmore, Danielle, Fairman, Linzy, Starling, Linda. INFLUENTIAL PSYCHOANALYTIC WOMEN OF PSYCHOLOGY.
This poster is based on information of three psychoanalytic women theorists. These three women are Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Nancy Chodorow. This poster shows the differences and similarities between the three women. They were all Freudians but took different approaches in their research. Melanie Klein focused on children with extreme personalities. Anna Freud focused on the ego and its defenses and took children in latency. Nancy Chodorow focused on the central role that mothers play in child rearing and gender socialization.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JAMES BARGAR
Fisher, Andrew; Hiatt, Dara; Abongo, Judith. SIGMUND FREUD IN EXPLORATION.
Our poster covers most aspects and contributions of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, along with a biography of his life. We have included the basic personality structures and what he saw as key characteristics of his “iceberg theory”. Our poster also shows the stages of the five psycho sexual stages, and illustrates in some detail the two complexes which he believed were a result from normal development. Also the poster shows several ego defense mechanisms with examples of each mechanism.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Garcia, Cindy . ALBERT BANDURA .
Albert Bandura, a social learning psychologist, was born December 4, 1925 in the small town of Mundare, Canada. What is interesting about this prestigious psychologist is that he did not intend to make psychology his life’s work, enrolling in psychology courses were merely a convenience for him. Enrolling in psychology courses enabled him to carpool with his colleagues, but once in the classes the subject matter caught his attention and he became completely captivated. Bandura has accomplished many things throughout his career, earning one of the most acclaimed awards in psychology, the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement presented to him by the American Psychological Association. A lot of his work has centered among the behavior of aggression and thus much of the current understanding of the behavior stems from what he has found in his research. Much of his work finds it basis in the key components of self-efficacy, modeling and learning through observation.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Gilgour, Stephanie. BUDDHISM AND PERSONALITY.
The purpose of this poster is to provide information about Buddhism and how it relates to psychology, including theories about the "self" and different personality types.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
(Hull, Matthew), (Morrill,Monica),(Waisner, Mark). CARL GUSTAV JUNG.
Our poster is on the theorist Carl Gustav Jung, and his major contributions to the field of Psychology. The main areas touched on are: childhood, early adolescence, personal unconscious, collective unconscious, archetypes, psyche, dreams, relationship with Sigmund Freud, and subtle secrets. This poster is a brief view of one of Psychology's most thoughtful theorist.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Kline, Amber. GORDAN ALLPORT AN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST.
Gordan Allport (1897-1967) was an American Psychologist. He graduated with a PhD from Harvard. Allports dissertation was the first American study of personality traits. Many know him as a founding figure in personality psychology. This poster will discuss Allports back ground, contributions to psychology, his theories, and his books.
Faculty Sponsor: J. BARGAR
Morales, Lindsey. HANS JURGEN EYSENCK.
Hans Jurgen Eysenck is a German psychologist who has strongly influenced British psychology. He is widely known for his work in Britain, being the first professor and Head of the Psychology Department at the Institute of Psychiatry in London. His PhD thesis consisted of a model of individual differences in aesthetic preferences, which created an interest in theories yet to come. His books; The Structure of Human Personality, The Biological Basis of Personality, and The Effects of Psychotherapy will be mentioned in this piece because of their acknowledgements in psychology today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Roesle, Hannah. THEORIES OF KAREN HORNEY & FEMININE PSYCHOLOGY.
Karen Horney was the first to challenge Freud's ideas about women. Horney distinguished between her idea of womb envy and Freud's idea of penis envy. She also focused on neurotic versus normal behavior in individuals and the difference between the real and idealized self. This poster shows some of Horney's most important theories that helped revolutionize the way we think about psychology and that argue against the Freudian way of thinking. She looked deeply into the relationships between men and women and their psychosexual development.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGAR
Schuster, Jennifer. TAOISM: PHILOSOPHY OF PERSONALITY.
Eastern views on personality may seem very unusual, informal, or foreign to the western mind but theirs is no less valid than our own. Taoism has a strong influence on eastern thought and their philosophy of personality. Taoists view personality as a product of one's accordance or conflict with nature. Those who are not one with nature are seen as having difficulties with developing themselves and tend to struggle more throughout their life. Opposite are those who flow with nature. Their personality is characterized by impartial love and perpetual joy.
Faculty Sponsor: J.S. BARGAR
Spitzer, Brett A.. GEORGE A. KELLY PH.D..
George A. Kelly Ph.D. became a well-known clinician holding chair positions at the Ohio State University and Brandeis University. In 1955 he developed his Personal Construct Theory which stemmed from constructive alternativism. With a fundamental postulate and 11 corollaries much debate ensued. Understanding how a person will anticipate events is the key to Kelly’s theory. From this all other corollaries develop and may or may not be used. Many scholars adapted his method after his early death prevented full explanation of his theory.
Faculty Sponsor: JAMES BARGAR PH.D.
Wooten, Kember. EXISTENTIAL PERSONALITY THEORIES.
This poster focuses on general existential personality theories. There is some emphasis on the contributions and treatments devised by Viktor E. Frankl and Rollo May. Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning and May's Discovery of Being provide much of the research.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
98 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY19
CHEMISTRY3
COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND THEATRE17
CRIMINAL JUSTICE1
ECONOMICS5
ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND JOURNALISM6
GOVERNMENT SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIOLOGY1
MUSIC1
NURSING5
PSYCHOLOGY40
ANALYTICAL PAPER/ANALYSIS4
EMPIRICAL44
GRADUATE8
HISTORICAL PAPER15
INTERNSHIP2
LITERATURE REVIEW7
PERSONALITY PAPER14
URSI PROJECT4