Program for the Fall 2012 Multidisciplinary Research Day


December 6, 2012
12:00-2:00
Blum Union 218/219


DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Graham, Jake. Jago, Jeremiah. Mendenhall, Olivea. LEAF LITTER ANALYSIS OF FOUR MICROHABITATS OF MWSU CAMPUS.
We compared data from four different microhabitats on MWSU campus comparing species richness and abundance of different invertebrates. Samples were taken at random and were put into burlese funnels to collect invertebrates. Invertebrates were then seperated by species and counts were taken
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY
Jackson, Wyatt & Payne, Derek. LOCATION SPECIFICITY OF PARASITES IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT IN ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS (MALLARD).
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) is one of the most recognizable waterfowl in America. The average distance a mallard will travel during migration is approximately 1200 miles one way with many opportunities to pick up many different parasites (ducks.org). We wanted to see where the different types of parasites that were collected from the intestinal tract were located in the intestinal tract of a mallard. We obtained 10 mallards that had been shot legally during the Missouri 2012 duck season at Nodaway Conservation Area. We then necropsied the intestinal tract and observed through a microscope, and recorded data. We found different families in different sections of the intestinal tract.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Jacobs, Cooper. CAMPUS ZOOPLANKTON.
I will be presenting a poster on the diversity of invertabrates on campus ponds. Samples were collected by plankton net and sorted and vouchered by catalog series. Data was analyzed using spss software. This is one of the projects required in Bio 415 invertabrate biology.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Walker, Tanner Olsen, Ben Herrad, Chris. MIGRATORY BIRDS.
Our project covers the in depth topic of migratory birds. We broke the topic down by researching the various acts and legal cases that dealt with migratory birds. In our presentation we covered three different cases, Missouri V. Holland, Humane Society of the United States V. Babbit, and also United States V. Dion. We then explain in depth about the Acts used in the cases to prove the verdicts. These Acts are as follows, Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, Wild Birds Conservation Act of 1992, and the Bald Eagle Protection Act.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER

Empirical Projects

Ackerman, Diana; Ambrose, Holly; Hodson, Julie; McCracken, Marly. THE ABILITY OF ASPIRIN TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS ON MACROPHAGE CELLS. .
With research background understanding, this study was conducted with the indication that aspirin will induce apoptosis in macrophage cells, especially at a higher molarity. There has been evidence in other studies that aspirin induces apoptosis through the inhibition of proteasome function. The experimental design, performed at MWSU in Dr. Walton’s Fall 2012 Molecular Basis of Disease class, was intended to prove that aspirin causes apoptosis by using DNA fragmentation analysis. Agents for this experiment consisted of: a negative control (macrophage cells and media), a positive control (macrophage cells and etoposide), a variable 1 (macrophage cells, 5mM aspirin/media), and a variable 2 (macrophage cells, 10mM aspirin/media). After seven and a half hours of treatment the negative control showed no sign of cell death, while the positive control, variable 1, and variable 2 all showed sign of cell death. However, the electrophoresis gel did not indicate any DNA laddering for the variables, which this may indicate that necrosis could be occurring instead of apoptosis.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Breit, Bradley; Lee, Tyler; Howe, Dillon. WILDLIFE LAW: CONSERVATION LANDS AND WATERS.
In the realm of federal wildlife law, one of the primary ways in which conservation is able to take hold is through government-created agencies that take on the responsibility of protecting species and their respective habitats. Natural resources are not inexhaustible, as once thought. Conservation lands are made up of the Wildlife Refuge System, National Park System, and Wilderness Areas. Most recently, the National Marine Sanctuary System was created to protect our marine ecosystems. Each Federally-funded system plays a vital role in making sure that natural resources are protected and conserved for our posterity to enjoy and benefit from.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Burton, Jake Mueller, Phill Simmons, Daniel. AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES OF THE HUZZAH RIVER.
We are using multiple samples of kicknet data to determine that riffle sections of a stream had a higher abundance of specimen then run samples. We sampled 6 sections (3 riffles, 3 runs) using a standard kicknet in a 1 meter square area within the Huzzah River. This was a quantitative study; therefore every specimen found was collected and preserved in alcohol. We observed the overall abundance between the riffle and run habitats and concluded that there was not a significant difference among species richness and abundance.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
(Chevalier, Cary) (Graham, Jake). BLOOD SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HEMATOLOGY IN FIELD-FRESH MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA).
The point of this study was to establish baseline values for 24 blood chemistry characteristics for Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Also, it compared values for field fresh samples with samples that were wild caught,then raised in pens for a year.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
Coffee, Dane; Guldan, Moriah; Higdon, Bree; Kotwani, Shaina. THE EFFECTS OF TRICLOSAN ON CELL FUNCTION.
Triclosan is an anti-bacterial, anti-fungal agent that can be damaging to human health. It is found in many consumer products. This study was conducted on intestinal epithelial cells to determine whether these consumer products would induce apoptosis over time. In order to test this, the effects of treated cells with pure triclosan and triclosan in traced amounts were observed, and then compared with that of non-treated cells. We obtained traced amounts of triclosan from Colgate total toothpaste and used gel electrophoresis to test whether apoptosis occurred. Based on the results it can be concluded that triclosan does have negative effects on normal function in cells by increasing apoptosis, more so than if no triclosan was present.
Faculty Sponsor: KRISTEN WALTON
(Dear, Matt) (Loe, Heather) (Schultze, Ashley). INVERTEBRATE SPECIES RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE IN MICROHABITATS OF REIS BIOLOGICAL STATION.
The purpose of our experiment was to compare the species richness and abundance between microhabitats in the Ozarks. We tested the hypothesis that species richness would differ depending upon the microhabitat. We proposed that the species richness would be highest in the woodland pond. Aquatic light traps were placed in four different microhabitats, checked the next morning and specimens were collected and sorted. We found the richness to be highest in the prairie microhabitat. The abundance among the microhabitat varied but was not statistically significant. We concluded that our hypothesis was not supported.
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY
Kriebs, Georja, Montgomery, Lisa. POLLUTED VS. PROTECTED LAND IN MISSOURI.
Pollution is a global environmental issue with a massive scope. In the United States the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for policing waste disposal, biomass energy production and recycling activities for government, private industry and individual land owners. State and Federal agencies maintain nearly 30% of all U.S. land as National Parks, wildlife areas and refuges. This study was generated to make a visual representation of polluted and protected lands in Northwest Missouri. The map presented highlights all state and federal property in Missouri as well as all known landfills, Superfund Sites, Brownsfields and known hazardous waste generators.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAWN DRAKE
Haley, Jacob and Powell John. PARELAPHOSTROGYLUS TENUIS WORM IN WHITE-TAILED DEER.
We are presenting a poster on the findings of a study looking for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis worm in White-tailed deer that were taken from 4 counties in NW Missouri.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Hallowell, Amanda Potter, Krystal Rudolph, Nick Wharton, Kiersten. ASCORBIC ACID'S ABILITY TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS IN CANCEROUS CELLS.
Based on current research ascorbic acid is known to induce apoptosis when in combination with vitamin K3. Therefore we were curious to find if we could induce apoptosis in cancerous cells using only ascorbic acid. After DNA fragmentation and Gel Electrophoresis we would expect to find laddering of our cells, indicative of apoptosis. Overall we concluded that at lower concentrations of ascorbic acid there is still intact genomic DNA, indicating apoptosis did not take place, and at higher concentrations random degradation took place.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Kilpatrick, Katie, Carney, Jordan, Goddard, Mandy, DeShon, Mallori. ALCOHOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS .
With an interest in acute versus chronic exposure effects with alcohol inducing apoptosis, intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to 200-proof molecular grade ethanol. A 1% solution of ethanol was added to the cultured cells and was collected at two separate time periods to represent acute and chronic exposures. To interpret data accurately, a single sample was analyzed that only contained non ethanol exposed epithelial cells. Each sample was visualized under a light microscope and analyzed via gel electrophoresis. In this experiment, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to 200-proof molecular grade ethanol would induce apoptosis in cultured, intestinal epithelial cells.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
Knutson, Cari; Lynch, Matalie; Marek, Hannah; Snider, Tabitha. THE MEASURABLE EFFECTS OF ASPARTAME ON CELL APOPTOSIS.
The project focused on the effects that aspartame might have on cell apoptosis and in what quantity of aspartame cell death would occur. It was predicted that cells introduced to aspartame would undergo cell apoptosis measurable using western blot. Using intestinal epithelial cells grown by Dr. Walton the group added two different concentrations of Equal to media that the cells were then incubated it. The amount of Equal added to media were ½ a package of Equal for one test group and 1 full package of Equal for the second test group. The cells were then sampled at 4 hours of incubation and 24 hours of incubation. Results were measured using Western Blot for all samples. This project was conducted in duplicate to ensure accurate results and avoid timely errors. Both of the western blots had residue signal amplification that was present when observing the results. The first western blot had no recordable results which could be due to many reasons. The proteins from the cells could have already undergone enough cell division that then weren’t available for testing, the cells could have been under harvested or there could have been an error in transferring the cells but the specific reason is unknown. The second western blot had results that the group predicted. There was both full cleavage and apoptosis present on the second western blot. This shows that there was apoptosis caused by the introduction of aspartame to the cells being cultured.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. WALTON
MCMILLIAN,HEATHER. INTERNSHIP AT THE OMAHA ZOO.
My paper was about my experience at the Omaha Zoo. Over this past summer I worked at the Lee. G Simmons converstaion center that is linked with the Zoo. I was an Zoo keeper assitant the whole summer. The main topics in my paper were the daily up keep of the zoo, Breeding and conserving of wild animals, diets, studies the zoo partcipated in while I was there. I also disscued the importance of breeding and conservation at the center and some of the main programs are paired up with through out Nebraska.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVALIAR
McQuiston, Derin; Ludwig, Rebecca; Persinger, Ryan. INVERTEBRATE SAMPLING USING BLACK-LIGHT TRAPS ON MISSOURI WESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY'S CAMPUS.
The purpose of our experiment was to sample the diversity of invertebrates in four different microhabitats on Missouri Western State University’s campus. We hypothesized that the mature forest microhabitat would have the greatest species diversity than the other three microhabitats. The experiment was done by setting up black-light traps in four different microhabitats on campus. The traps were left out all night and collected the next morning. The species collected were processed, pinned, and organized into a voucher series. The black-light traps accumulated an abundance of invertebrates, however our data shows there’s no significant difference between the four different microhabitats.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
OKeefe, Don. MDC 2011 INTERNSHIP.
During the summer of 2011 I had the opportunity to work for the Missouri Department of Conservation at Platte Falls Conservation Area at Platte City under the supervision of Chris Blunk - Wildlife Management Biologist, Brian Gilbert – Resource Technician, and Jeff Miller – Resource Assistant.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVALIER
Olsen, Benjamin. SUMMER INTERNSHIP WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER.
I was fortunate to be awarded the Wolf Educator Internship at the International Wolf Center located in Ely, MN, for the summer of 2012. The International Wolf Center is an interpretive Wolf educational facility that features a captive wolf pack with the mission to advance the survival of wolf populations by teaching about; wolves, their relationship to wild lands, and the human role in their future. This internship offers many applied learning opportunities such as; experience being a naturalist, field research, captive wolf care, and wolf behavioral training. The program allowed me to get experience with the following Professional Development, Skill Set Development and Leadership Development duties ; 1) participate in maintaining a captive wolf pack for use in public education, preparing diet supplements, feeding wolf pups, and maintaining housing and outdoor facility environment, 2) prepare educational outreach programs on various aspects of wolf biology, conservation, and management and deliver to public, and 3) participate in live trapping of wolves and taking blood samples for research purposes. This was a very valuable experience that I am able to adapt to my applied learning experience requirement for my Wildlife Conservation and Management Degree Internship requirement.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
Petty, Aaron, Richardson, Carrie, Wallace, Nicole. OTOE CREEK COVER BOARDS.
The purpose of our research was to determine the species richness, abundance, and diversity of invertebrates located under the Otoe Creek cover boards at MWSU. We hypothesized that there would be a significant difference between the species richness for each habitat code and the mean total abundance versus habitat code, but no significant difference between the adjacent temperature and board temperature. This experiment was conducted by going out and collecting the specimens located under the cover boards, bringing them back to the lab in whirl-pack bags with alcohol, and sorting them with a voucher series. There was a significant difference between the species richness for each habitat code and there was not a significant difference between the adjacent temperature and board temperature, or between the mean total abundance versus habitat.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
SCHLESSER,SCOTT,MCMILLIAN,HEATHER. REGULATING COMMERCE IN WILDLIFE.
Our paper for Law 360 is a Chapter out of our law book. Our chapter was over the Lacey Acts and the acts that follwed the Lacey Act. Some of the major acts we discussed were; The Original Lacey act, Tariff Act of 1930, the 1949 Lacey Act Amendments, 1981 Lacey Act Amendments and the Noxious Weed Act. we also disscused some of the major cases that happended since these laws were made such as the Gibson Guitar Corporation which they illegally imported wood, Ted Nuget Illegally killing a bear and the Mcnabb vs. United states. we also plane to go into more cases involving major cases involving people violating animal laws.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVALIAR
(Schmit, Karin) (Zirkle, Colton). MARK TWAIN NATIONAL FOREST VERNAL POOL INVERTEBRATE SURVEY.
Abstract This study examined aquatic invertebrate richness and abundance in three vernal pools at Mark Twain National Forest, using two different sampling methods: Hester-Dendy and aquatic light traps. We predicted (1) there would be a significant difference between the sampling methods and (2) between the three vernal pools. We performed statistical tests, a t-test and an ANOVA, to determine if the data collected supports our hypothesis. We concluded the data collected showed there was no significant difference between the sampling methods or the three vernal pools.
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY
Power-Sigmon, Mickey . DO MINERAL AND BIO-FERTILIZERS IMPROVE THE ABIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCE OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM)?.
The nutritional status of crops is of great importance for their survival under adverse environmental conditions. The aim of the current study was to explore whether commercially available organic (Earth Juice, Right Mushroom, fish emulsion, chicken and dairy manure-based) and mineral-based (Miracle-Gro) nutrient supplements improve abiotic stress resistance of pea (Pisum sativum) plants. We compared morpho-physiological parameters and stress response of plants growing in soil supplemented with selected fertilizers to the response of control plants. Experiments were performed in different stages of plant development. Preliminary results indicate that of all tested fertilizers, the organic Earth Juice, fish emulsion and the mineral-based Miracle-Gro were efficient in improving plant stress resistance. We hypothesize this effect to be related to the higher chlorophyll content and prolonged growth cycle of plants fertilized with the above nutrients.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CSENGELE BARTA
Simmons, Daniel. THE FISH OF OTOE CREEK 2012.
We conducted a survey of the fishes of Otoe Creek, Buchanan Co., Missouri. Approximately 95% of our sample consisted of Creek Chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus), which were especially abundant in the more upstream reaches. We found no fish upstream of I-29, and creek chubs were the dominant species until we reach Riverside Road. We collected one Golden Shiner in the upstream portion. Below Riverside Road, we picked up an additional eight more species and found little evidence of creek chubs; however, the abundance of fish in the downstream section declined (i.e., more species, but fewer of them). \\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR. MARK S. MILLS
Unruh, Jon. Reeves, Dalton. Mueller, Phil. NATIVE AMERICANS & WILDLIFE.
This poster presentation takes an analytic view at how wildlife law and interpretation of conservation has affected and regulated Native American tribes. This raises many unique questions which are addressed in the various cases chosen for analysis. In the nineteenth century tribes ceded much of their land and waters to the United States in exchange for guarantees of rights on land and water and sometimes on the ceded areas as well. Treaties with Indian tribes, while similar to international treaties, are in many ways very different. Indians were typically ill-informed of the treaty outlines and rarely negotiations took place between two equal parties. Tribes were often effectively forced into signing treaties that were not thoroughly explained or accurately depicted. Many of Native American religious practices use wildlife or wildlife parts. Regulations aimed at conserving wildlife may affect the exercise of Native American religious practices. Native American claims of constitutionally and protected free exercise of religion have tested the limits of wildlife regulation as applied to these practices. Overall this presentation take an in depth look at on and off reservation hunting and fishing rights, and effectively provides insight to how tribal religious practices have been monitored and regulated.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER

Historical Papers

Daggett, Crystal and Williams, Virginia. FEDERAL LAW AS IT APPLIES TO ENDANGERED SPECIES.
Many Acts, Laws, and Treaties have played a role in the protection of Endangered Species. Four are covered as they affect a specific species 1) Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940, 2) Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966, 3) Endangered Species Act of 1973, and 4) Commerce Clause.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER

Internship/Practicum Experience

Haley, Jacob. INTERNSHIP WITH PONY EXPRESS FISHERIES DIVISION.
I worked as an intern under the supervision of Jerry Wiechman at Pony Express CA doing fisheries management practices. We took fish counts using electroshocking boats, vegetation transplanting and control, and put on youth fishing clinics at area lakes.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVALIER
Jackson, Wyatt . MY INTERNSHIP AT COMMANCHE RANCH IN EAGLE PASS TEXAS.
I was a ranch hand on the second largest ranch in Texas, in which I had many responsibilities that helped give me a very diverse skill set. My main job was to keep feeders full which consisted well over 400 on over 115,000 acres. There were three different types of feeders on the ranch which included protein corn feeders, cotton seed feeders, and straight corn feeders. I also had the responsibility to keep up fences and predator control. Along with my duties I had the opportunity to work with a group of graduate students from Texas A&M of Kingsville on the impact deer population has on a habitat.\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Jago, Jeremiah. SUMMER INTERNSHIP WITH MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.
For my summer internship I gained job and social skills working for the Missouri Department of Conservation. I gained experience in banding doves and Canada geese, while also gaining knowledge in managing a conservation area. This included invasive species removal, prescribed burns, birds surveys and much more.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
North, Amy. MY SUMMER INTERNSHIP AT THE KANSAS CITY ZOO.
This summer I had the privilege to work at the Kansas City Zoo. During my time there my main duties were to clean the stalls and feed the animals, along with giving keeper chats to the public. On top of my daily activities the other intern and I conducted an ethogram on Eddie, a year and a half old giraffe.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER

Literature Reviews

Brittany Bremer, Cathi Gaume, Jami Kellam. MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACTS.
This presentation is dealing with the importance of marine mammals and their ecosystems. The main focus of this presentation is the 40th year anniversary of several acts that such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act, Coastal Zone Management Protection Act and National Marine Sanctuaries Act. These acts not only protect marine mammals but also protect the prey for the mammals, the ecosystems, the culture and fishing industries that rely on these ecosystems as well as the economy and tourist industry that are generated by these mammals. By creating and establishing these conservation acts scientists are able to learn more about the vital role marine mammals play in the ecosystems worldwide and learn more physiological features of the mammals that scientists were not able to conduct in without these acts.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Couch, Brock; Gudehus, Brandon; Burkart, Adam. OCEAN FISH CONSERVATION.
This presentation approaches the ocean fish topic by explaining a major case, Maine v. Kreps, with certain acts. Maine was suing Juanita M. Kreps on the basis that she didn't make a proper management plan for Georges Bank Fishery. Maine said that Kreps was in violation of the Magnuson Act of 1976, by allowing foreign vessels to fish in Georges Bank. Maine also attacked her by saying her plan was capricious and arbitrary. The court ruled in favor of Kreps saying that she didn't have to ban foreign vessels and that she provided enough information to show her plan was adequate.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Gienapp, Allison; Thornton, Bethany. A REVIEW OF MULTIPLE USE LANDS.
A review of past and current federal wildlife law and its regards to multiple use lands under the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. A look at major federal legislations including a variety of different Acts that allows such area of public land to be in effect and the impact such laws and regulations have.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
Long, Casey and Mendenhall, Olivea. INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE LAW.
We will be covering international wildlife law as it pertains to the United States. We will cover topics such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Lacey Act, Convention on International Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna, and the Biological Convention. The purpose is to provide information on what each act is and how the act protects wildlife. We will also include two case laws that pertain to international wildlife law.
Faculty Sponsor:
O'Keefe, Don Payne, Derek Streett, Joe. HOLLY HILL FARM VS. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
We reviewed case 447 F.3d 258; Holly Hill Farm v. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This case originated in 1989 when the USDA designated several fields on Holly Hill Farm as wetlands. In 1991 the USDA was notified that Holly Hill had converted a wetland area to pasture which was in violation of the Wetland Conservation, or “Swampbuster”, provision of the Food Security Act of 1985. Holly Hill Farm was denied any further USDA program farm benefits such as loans, crop insurance, price support programs and subsidies. Various findings and rulings over the years favoring the USDA, were consistently appealed by Holly Hill Farms until 2006 when the United States Court of Appeals, 4th District, ultimately ruled, again, in favor of the USDA.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVALIER

DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE/LEGAL STUDIES/SOCIAL WORK

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Havener, Ryan. CHANGING PUBLIC OPINION: CURRENT TRENDS IN DEATH PENALTY AND LIFE WITHOUT PAROLE .
A study of public opinion on the death penalty as a sentence and life without parole as a sentence was conducted. Previous GALLUP poll data was used to determine if public opinion was moving away from support for the death penalty during the course of nearly the past three decades. A total of 15 different years from 1985 to 2010 was examined and it was determined that although public opinion still favors the death penalty over life without parole those trends may be changing.
Faculty Sponsor: GREGORY LINDSTEADT

Empirical Projects

Butler, Katherine. SCHOOL SAFETY: COLLEGE ADMISSIONS SCREENING FOR OFFENDERS.
Abstract School violence is a major problem in the United States today. The shooters at Columbine were convicted of a felony months before the massacre. The gunman from Virginia Tech was a mentally unstable man who killed thirty two people. It was events like these that lead to the need for new laws and crime prevention in educational facilities. This research project provides and in-depth look into the admissions guidelines of post-secondary educational facilities (N=12) in an effort to see what steps are being taken to protect the students from possible treats from people who had previously been convicted of a crime. Less than half of the schools evaluated had admissions policies in place for people who had been a criminal background. This study shows the admissions guidelines for applicants with a criminal history. It is necessary for post-secondary admissions to adapt policies to protect the rights of potential applicants and the safety of students as well as faculty.
Faculty Sponsor: LINDSTEADT, GREG
Littlejohn, Jessica. THE PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL WORK AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE STUDENTS€™ OF HIV/AIDS.
HIV is something that many have heard of or even been affected by. It is important as professionals who plan to work with individuals that might be affected by HIV that they would know individuals can be affected by people’s perceptions to HIV. Studies have found that the stigma and the perceptions of HIV and those affected have an effect on the individuals living with HIV. This study examined the perceptions of two groups of students in different fields. To explore these differences a survey was given to both Social Work and Criminal Justice students, to see if there was a significant difference.
Faculty Sponsor: GREGORY LINDSTEADT
West, Whitney. ARE JUVENILE CRIME RATES WORSE THAN BEFORE? .
This study looks at the percentage rate of incarceration and arrest, between juveniles an d adults. With this, we can compare the percentage change among juvenile and adult offenders. By looking at this data, we can see if the juvenile population has had a more substantial arrest or incarceration rate than that of the adults.\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR. GREGORY LINDSTEADT

Literature Reviews

Hutton, Thomas . BENEFITS TO BEING AN OFFICER JOB SATISFACTION IN BEING A POLICE OFFICER.
Studies consistently indicate job satisfaction of police officers to be one of the lowest compared to other careers. For police officers suicide rates are high, retention rates are at an all time low. Divorce rates are up and time with family is getting shorter and shorter. There have been dozens of research projects done on job satisfaction of an officer. These usually state that police are unhappy with work, money, and are over worked. This is a crucial subject to know in order to understand officer satisfaction and retention. Officers surveyed (N=16) identified the most common issues being; low pay, a weak chain of command, and lack of respect within the department. Consistently officers reported the support of family and friends impacted their decision to become officers and to remain in the field. These findings were somewhat new compared to the literature on retention of police officers. Other methods reported by police officers participating in this study to improve retention were: proper training, equipment, supportive chain of command, and counseling. Some police departments in larger cities report having more satisfied officers due to programs they have. In addition these departments report having more police officers to carry the work load, better utilization of current technologies and improved equipment.
Faculty Sponsor: GREG LINDSTEADT, PH.D.

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND JOURNALISM

Empirical Projects

Jones, Britney. METADISCOURSE: TEXTUAL AND INTERPERSONAL.
Metadiscourse is a topic that not very many people report on. The goal of this poster is to define metadiscourse and to explain why it is helpful as well as important to a technical communicator. While explaining metadiscourse, I plan to break it into two different groups to help readers understand the types of metadiscourse which are textual and interpersonal.
Faculty Sponsor: KAYE ADKINS

DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY PHILOSOPHY AND GEOGRAPHY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Alkier Lauren, Gienapp Allison. PROPOSED BIRD BANDING SITES ON MISSOURI WESTERN STATE UNIVERITY CAMPUS.
At Missouri Western State University there is a Federal bird banding project. There is a need for forested sites that have the habitat requirements for songbirds. Currently there are only two sites that are present on the campus of Missouri Western. An increase in student interest for this federal program has created a need for more than just two sites. By creating a detailed map of the entire campus and showing the watershed that is needed for the bird’s habitat sites have been located.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DRAKE

DEPARTMENT OF NURSING

Empirical Projects

Anthony, Jessica; Lorbert, Keri; Moe, Emily; Montgomery, Rebekah. FORGIVENESS AND HEALTH IN CHRISTIAN WOMEN.
Parish nurses are often involved in the care of parishners who are experiencing psychological distress and are faced with difficult issues involving forgiveness. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of forgiveness in a Christian paradigm and collect data sets using the 93 item Christian Women’s Forgiveness Measure. To date 253 surveys have been collected with a goal of 300. Future psychometric analysis will be conducted and include in- depth item analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, and factor analysis with Verimax rotation to assess if the six subscales are valid. Subsequent scientific studies will be conducted using forgiveness education. By nursing students, Anthony, Jessica; Lorbert, Keri; Moe, Emily; Montgomery, Rebekah working with Gretchen Quenstedt-Moe, Fall 2012.
Faculty Sponsor: GRETCHEN QUENSTEDT-MOE
Bundy, Brooke; Craig, Megan; Hunter, Elizabeth; Lohman, Laura; Wampler, Kelsey. PREVENTION AND EDUCATION ON COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED MRSA.
With the large population, close proximity of students, and the involvement of students in organizations and athletics as risk factors, college campuses provide a rampant breeding ground for infection with Community Acquired MRSA. The purpose of this project is to 1) assess current knowledge levels of college students related to CA-MRSA and 2) make recommendations for the development of an evidence-based educational intervention on this topic. We utilized a survey created by our research group that was then distributed to a sample of 181 students on campus. We analyzed the results of this data with a T-Test.
Faculty Sponsor: CRISTI CAMPBELL
Clemens, Whitney; Frank, Ashley; McAlister, Shelby; McKay, Samantha. ADHERENCE TO ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY: EXPLORATION OF PATIENT COMPLIANCE FACTORS.
Non-adherence to antibiotic therapy is a serious problem and economic burden. The question answered was how many nursing students were compliant with their medications when prescribed. The sample was 77 of approximately 200 nursing students on a small university campus. Students participated in an online survey regarding antibiotic prescriptions and how they complied with the regimen. Results showed that despite their nursing education, over half of the students did not comply with the prescription. More research is needed on this topic to determine what influences patient adherence and interventions that may reduce noncompliance. Nurses should encourage patients to comply with prescriptions to help prevent the negative impacts of non-adherence.
Faculty Sponsor: CRISTI CAMPBELL
Yeh, Pi-Ming; McGaughy, Amanda; Thornton, Kortney;Silvey, Ashley; Kpenu, Gloria . THE COMPARISONS OF FAMILY INTERACTION AND PERSONALITY BETWEEN NURSING STUDENTS AND PATIENTS.
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of family interaction, personality, spiritual well-being, depression, and suicidal ideation between nursing students and patients with mental illness. This was a cross sectional descriptive research design. There were 44 nursing students and 39 patients with mental illness recruited in this study. There were statistically significant differences between nursing students and patients in family interaction, personality, spiritual well-being, depression, and suicidal ideation. Nursing students had higher scores in positive family interaction, personality, and spiritual well-being than patients’ scores. Patients had higher scores in depression and suicidal ideation than nursing students.
Faculty Sponsor: YEH, PI-MING

Literature Reviews

(Adkins, Samantha), (Brown, Amanda), (Giesing, Amanda). EVALUATING ADOSESCENT SMOKING PREVENTION AND CESSATION INTERVENTIONS.
The aim of this paper was to examine successful smoking cessation and prevention programs for adolescents. In this paper, home and community based programs, school-based programs, computer-based programs, and media based programs were examined. It was found that home based, school based and media based interventions were successful with school based interventions being the most successful interventions to prevent adolescents from smoking and helping them to stop smoking. By nursing students: Amanda Brown, Amanda Giesing, and Samantha Adkins working with Stephanie Corder. Fall 2012.
Faculty Sponsor: STEPHANIE CORDER
Campbell, Jamie, Musch Leah, Ream Courtnee, Sullivan Ally. OBESITY IN NURSES: A GROWING CONCERN.
The purpose of our literature review is to evaluate if nurses working the night shift are at an increased risk of developing obesity. There are many factors that increase the risk of obesity in this group. Work schedules, long hours, and lack of available food services lead to unhealthy food choices for nursing which also leads to increasing trends in obesity (Han, 2011). Schiaro found that night shift workers have a higher average BMI than day shift workers (2010). The results from our literature review showed that working the night shift puts nurses at a higher risk for obesity.
Faculty Sponsor: JULIE BALDWIN
Fischer Logan, Redford Larry. OBESE NURSES IN THE PRACTICE ENVIRONMENT.
This evidence-based research explores the issue of overweight and obese nurses in the practice environment. The American Nurses Association is of the position, based on research, that a healthy nurse is a better role model, educator, and advocate. But are nurses healthy? Based on multiple studies outlined in this research, nursing is a profession filled with overweight and obese individuals. The gap between what is desired and what actually exists is quite concerning. This research examines the incidence of obese and overweight nurses and looks at the possible impact it can have on practice.
Faculty Sponsor: JULIE BALDWIN
Fryer, Abigail; Harris, Nikki; Manning, Rachael. LITERATURE REVIEW.
Health Literacy and Heart Failure (Literature Review)\r\nThe research question this paper asked was: What are identifiable health literacy barriers that exist in regards to the outcome of heart failure patients? In the US, cardiovascular disease is the #1 leading cause of death in adults. Barriers to adequate health literacy can worsen these outcomes (Macabsasco-O’Connell et al., 2011). The ACE Star Model was used to identify the barriers that hinder adequate health literacy of heart failure patients. Some barriers include: working memory and cognitive load, self-care, drug adherence and psychosocial factors. Education and motivation of heart failure patients helps to prevent hospital readmissions, improves quality of life, and decreases mortality.\r\n
Faculty Sponsor: DEBORAH ELLIS, MSN, FNP
Grace, Brittany; Keith, Katelyn; Sturgis, Jennifer. BULLYING AND THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL NURSE.
The aim of this evidence-based paper was to focus on the world of bullying within schools and on the role of the school nurse. There are many different forms of bullying: physical, verbal, and the use of electronics. Bullying takes a detrimental toll on the victims, both physically and emotionally. It is essential to explore the reasoning behind the reasoning of aggressors. A great deal of research has been done throughout the years on bullying in general, bullying within our schools, and on the role the school nurse plays in the prevention of bullying and treatment of the victims. Therefore, it’s important to take a look at what is being done to prevent bullying from ruining the lives of school age children. By nursing students Grace, Brittany; Keith, Katelyn; Sturgis, Jennifer working with Mary Jo Gay, Fall 2012.
Faculty Sponsor: MARY JO GAY
Hollandsworth, Sheree; Beck, Andrea; Chism, Alicia. CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATIONS COMPLIANCE.
OBJECTIVES: Available studies were reviewed regarding immunization compliance rates in the United States and were compared to the reasons that parents didn’t follow recommended immunization schedules. The roles of the nurse were also examined, along with effective ways to educate parents and increase immunization compliance. RESULTS: The researchers found that parental compliance rates for infants in the United State were good overall. However, there is a significant amount of parents who defer immunizations completely or immunize on an alternative schedule due to several reasons: availability issues, fear of potential side effects, and socioeconomic standing. CONCLUSIONS: Parents would benefit from a nationwide education program regarding the importance of immunization compliance. Healthcare providers could aid in and increase compliance by offering parents the opportunity to utilize home health care immunizations. If nurses could travel to the patients when immunizations were due, this would increase compliance rates. This would also allow for the nurses to provide more educational opportunities for the parents with regard to immunizations as well as general infant care.\r\n
Faculty Sponsor: MARY JO GAY
Poppa, Shanin; Smith, Jordan. VISITATION IN CRITICAL CARE.
Being in an intensive care unit (ICU) is a very stressful and isolating time for both the patient and the family. The patient can be in extreme pain, extremely sick, or possibly unconscious. The amount of equipment connected to the patient can be overwhelming for the unfamiliar. Medical staff will be in and out assuring the patient remains in stable condition. This is also an extremely stressful time for the family since there is always the unknown of whether or not their loved one will survive. The purpose of this project will be to examine the evidence as it relates to answering the questions; 1) Do the benefits of open visitation outweigh the disadvantages? 2) What are some of the barriers that keep critical care units from allowing open visitation?
Faculty Sponsor: HEATHER KENDALL

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Adrian, Aaron, Bisig, Shianne, Herrington, Gage, Nichols, Lynne, Padilla, Rosy. DO WE VIEW OUR BREASTS BY AGE? A STUDY OF GENERATIONAL BREAST PERCEPTIONS.
We hypothesized that emerging adult women (18-24) will be more likely to objectify their breasts, concentrating on appearance and considering their breasts as primarily sexual in compared to early adults (25-39) and adults (40 plus). We found that there was no significant difference with age. Women who objectified their bodies, regardless of age, had higher concern with breast appearance. We discuss body objectification, appearance ideals and body modifications.
Faculty Sponsor: DR, TEDDI DEKA
Bell, Jarad; Flinn, Cassie; Green, Cara; Jones, Kimberly; King, William; Toebben, Lisa. DOES THE SOURCE MAKE IT TRUE? BUSTING THE TRUTHINESS EFFECT WITH POLITICAL STATEMENTS..
Truthiness is a term coined by the political satirist, Stephen Colbert, describing the phenomenon in which people trust their gut feelings instead of basing decisions on evidence. The purpose of the current study is to assess the robustness of the truthiness effect when evaluating the accuracy of statements made by politicians. The presence of an image, news logo, and/or name of speaker did not increase the likelihood of judging a statement as true. In fact, there were no significant main effects or interactions despite the analysis having a power of nearly one for six of the seven effects. Given this large power, it appears as if the truthiness effect is not as robust as previously believed, and it may not apply to political statements or many other situations.
Faculty Sponsor: BRIAN CRONK
Dennis, Curtis, Fairman, Linzy, Heidtbrink, Daniel, Matthys, Zach, Parra, Genesis, Souther, Thomas, Varner, Malorie, Williams, Antoinette. INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING IN A PUBLIC GOODS DILEMMA.
The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of asymmetrical endowments on individual contribution decisions in a public goods dilemma. The four endowment sizes are $50, $75, $100, and $200 using Monopoly money. Forty-one participants completed a decision making task as part of a four-person group. The decision task involved investing Monopoly money into a joint and/or personal account. Joint account accrued interest with proceeds shared among all four; personal account accrued no interest but belonged to the individual only. Our findings show no significant differences between wealth and contributions.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KELLY HENRY
Haynes, Steven. JOHN BROADUS WATSON : FATHER OF BEHAVIORISM.
The poster project that I will be displaying will speak to the Psychology belief structure of John Broadus Watson. John B. Watson was a Psychologist who practiced by the way of the Behaviorist belief structure. John B. Watson believed that human personality is a direct response to conditioning.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JAMES BARGER
McDonald, Kristy. THE STUDY OF PERSONALITY, GORDON ALLPORT.
Gordon Allport was an American psychologist who was one of the first to study and teach personality. My poster will briefly cover Allport\'s biographical background. It will also include different theories of his including the proprium (the self), functional autonomy, common traits and personal dispositions. I will also include Allport\'s views on rumors and prejudice.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGER
Mullins, Ashley. PLEASE SMILE IF YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT I MEAN: THE NONLINGUISTIC FUNCTIONS OF EMOTICONS.
Emoticons are emotional icons used in SMS to compensate for the lack of nonverbal cues in text messages. Emoticons have been used in place of facial expressions and to elicit humor (winking). They may also provide more complex information (e.g., illocutionary force) affecting the interpretation of the message. In this study, participants read messages representing three types of speech acts (assertive, directive, expressive). Half of the messages contained emoticons. Participants rated messages for emotional valence, politeness, ambiguity, and seriousness; they also were asked to interpret the message. Results reveal the extent to which emoticons affect illocutionary force.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. MARY STILL
Noble, Jordan, Ross, Kacie. BEHAVIORISM: B.F. SKINNER, JOHN DOLLARD, AND NEAL MILLER.
We will be presenting a poster on behaviorists Burrhus Frederick Skinner, John Dollard, and Neal Miller. Dollard's and Miller's key contribution to psychology were the four fundamental concepts off learning that began to be accepted by the behaviorist principles defined by Skinner. One of B.F. Skinner's concepts was that the behavior of organisms, including humans, is determined by genetic and environmental variables.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGAR
Padilla, Rosy; Hardy, Matthew; Matyas, Sarah. THE LIFE AND WORKS OF CARL JUNG .
A review of Carl Jung's life and works focusing on his personality theories. Which included his development of personality tests, his theory on self-realization, psychotherapy, archetypes, collective unconscious, types of personalities,and dream analysis.Childhood trauma influenced him to study psychology. Current implications are also discussed and his role in present day psychology.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Rodewald, Teresa. AARON T. BECK, FATHER OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY.
Aaron T. Beck, globally know as The Father of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), for over 60 years has made a huge impact on mental health. Through his career, he has written several books and won awards for his contribution to Psychology focussing on depression and personality disorders.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Tucker, Ashley . CARL ROGERS: A POSITIVE OUTLOOK ON PERSONALITY.
This presentation focuses on the many aspects of Carl Rogers\\\' personality theory in psychology. This includes the examination of humanism, the beginning of client-centered therapy, and the development of personality with regards to psychotherapy.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CRONK; DR. BARGAR
Wilson, Devon and Sykes, Hannah. SIGMUND FREUD'S PSYCHO-ANALYTIC THEORY.
The purpose of this poster is to give a general summary of Sigmund Freud’s psycho-analytic theory. Freud believed that the conscious and unconscious was important to therapy. He developed therapy techniques such as dream analysis and free association to penetrate the unconscious. He also coined the terms ego, id and superego to describe the processes in the mind. He also developed a theory of sexual development in children that forms their psyche. The information used for this poster was all primary source work by Freud to accurately present his theory.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR

Personality Papers

Bouling, Alexandria, & Kriebs, Kriebs. ERICH, FROMM. ESCAPE FROM FREEDOM.
This presentation provides a brief look at the psychologist Erich Fromm and his theory of Escape From Freedom.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGER, JAMES
Bradford, Raye. CONCEPTS OF PERSONALITY WITHIN THE CONFINES OF ZEN BUDDHISM.
Buddhism, especially Zen Buddhism presents a way to view the world that is vastly different from the Western ways we are familiar with. Buddhist philosophy can be applied to one’s way of seeing the world to release oneself from suffering and to gain a sense of universal acceptance. This presentation provides key concepts of Buddhism and some application for change in world view to provide a shift in personality and psychological well being.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGER
Erickson, Anna. HANS EYSENCK: A BIOSOCIAL THEORIST.
Hans Eysenck formulated a hierarchial personality model that included superfactors (extraversion- introversion, emotional-stability-neuroticism, and psychoticism) at the top level followed by a trait level, habitual response level, and finally a specific response level. His model was biosocially based with a belief that biological and genetic factors intersect with social and environmental factors. Hans was a strict proponent of empirically based research that promoted testable hypotheses verified through experimental procedures.
Faculty Sponsor: JIM BARGAR
Ewing, Tasha. GEORGE KELLY'S THEORY OF PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS.
George Kelly thought that all humans were like scientists. He believed that a person builds constructs to help deal with the challenges of life and that each person's constructs are different. Kelly used his theory in the clinical atmosphere by creating Fixed Role Therapy and the Repertory Test to help his clients. George Kelly's work was in the shadow of Behaviorism, but is now widely accepted in the United States and Europe.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Lowry, Janica and Schimming, Dan. THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF ARNOLD LAZARUS.
Arnold believed that the multimodal approach, also known as the basic ID, is a comprehensive approach that entails looking at the entire person both mental and physically to get at the root of their problem.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. BARGAR
Pearce, Stephanie. ROLLO MAY AND EXISTENTIALISM PSYCHOLOGY.
Rollo May is considered to be the father of American existentialism psychology. This poster will describe the existential approach that is focused on anxiety, love, will, and courage.
Faculty Sponsor:
Rogers, Nicolette. KAREN HORNEY, THE BEGINNING OF FEMININE PSYCHOLOGY.
Karen Horney is best known for her role in Feminine Psychology. Horney is also successful in describing basic anxieties and how others cope with such anxieties. Her development of The Self, idealized and actual, was also a major contribution.
Faculty Sponsor: BARGAR
71 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY35
CRIMINAL JUSTICE/LEGAL STUDIES/SOCIAL WORK5
ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND JOURNALISM1
HISTORY PHILOSOPHY AND GEOGRAPHY1
NURSING11
PSYCHOLOGY18
ANALYTICAL PAPER/ANALYSIS6
EMPIRICAL40
HISTORICAL PAPER1
INTERNSHIP4
LITERATURE REVIEW13
PERSONALITY PAPER7