Program for the Spring 2013 Multidisciplinary Research Day


DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Ambrose, Holly; Hodson, Julie; Kinney, Joe; Rakes, Abbie; Shinneman, Claire. THE DOT CHROMOSOME OF D. BIARMIPES: CONTIG 20.
Our project was to use synthetic biology techniques to annotate Drosophila species (D. biarmipes) to examine the characteristics of the genes and overall organization of this unique domain, as well as revealing how such a domain changes over evolutionary time. Our current project centered around the dot chromosome of Drosophila. This small chromosome is entirely heterochromatic by many measures, including dense staining, late replication, no meiotic combination, and association with high levels of HP1 and H3K9me3. However, the 1.2 Mb distal portion contain ~80 genes, exhibiting a gene density typical of the euchromatic domains. Accordingly, we constructed basic searches using flybase and GEP resources from Washington University to examine contig 20. The main objective of our participation in sequencing and annotation of the dot chromosome from a strain of D. biarmipes was to have fun with synthetic biology. Mission accomplished.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ECKDAHL
Ambrose, Holly; Hodson, Julie.. COMPARED GENE SEQUENCES OF SWINEPOX AND SMALLPOX..
Our project was to use bioinformatics and article findings to examine the characteristics of the fasta sequences of the virus family poxviridae to understand why viruses are species specific. Our project concentrated on the viruses of swinepox and smallpox. Poxviruses are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. To gain understanding as to what specifically causes viruses to be species specific we compared gene sequences of swinepox and smallpox using BLAST. In addition, we looked at peer reviewed articles leading to the understanding that virus-receptor interactions determine the host range and act as an interspecies barrier.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ECKDAHL
Herrod, Chris Schlesser, Scott, Walker, Tanner. WETLAND PLANTS .
We are going to talk about wetland plants of our local area, and plant habitat. Wetland plants are very important to our society. Even the biggest cattails to the lowliest moss or pond algae it is all important of our aquatic world. With no plants animals and other wildlife wouldn’t survive as easily.
Faculty Sponsor: KURT HARTMAN
Loe, Heather; Schumacher, Ben. WOOD ANATOMY AND TREE IDENTIFICATION USING DIGITAL MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES..
Identification of various species of trees commonly found in Missouri by comparison of the microscopic anatomical structures.
Faculty Sponsor: KURT HARTMAN
Loftin, Jennifer; Rakes, Abbie. GENOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HEARTLAND VIRUS AND ITS CLOSEST RELATION, SFTSV.
The Heartland virus, a novel phlebovirus, was recently discovered in Missouri. It is transmitted by ticks and has been found to be closely related to a Chinese virus called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). There are dissimilarities between the symptoms and severity of the diseases caused by the viruses. Four genes have been identified in the genomes of these phleboviruses. We decided to focus on the differences of these viruses, particularly of the glycoprotein gene because it is the gene that allows for the virus to invade the host. We identified numerous genomic differences between the two.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Rogers, Rebekah, Huff, Hannah, Kiefer, Ryan. CONTIG 21 OF DROSOPHILA BIARMIPES: ANNOTATING A CONTIG OF A PREVIOUSLY UNEXPLORED GENOME.
The goal of our project was to annotate the genes in a contig from Drosophila biarmipes. Programs such as BLAST, Flybase, and the USCS genome browser mirror were used to align and compare the sequence in our contig to the well known genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Previous annotation projects have shown that the computer models are not entirely reliable and that people, while more prone to mistakes, are much better at making judgment calls. Frequently these judgment calls, instead of just the proper DNA sequence, make the difference between annotating an actual gene and just finding something that looks like a gene. Our contig was found to contain two genes. One was an ortholog to PMCA, and the other was an ortholog to CG32850.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Rogers, Rebekah; Huff, Hannah. ALDH1A2 AND CELLULAR REGENERATION.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a rate limiting enzyme in the production of retinoic acid from retinaldehyde. Retinoic acid is a signaling molecule that is key for the differentiation of different cells throughout the body. Zebrafish show significant increase of aldehyde dehydrogenase activation after injury to various tissues such as fins and cardiac tissue. we looked for similar genes across different organisms in an attempt to show that other organisms possess the signaling molecules necessary for the regeneration of injured tissue.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Saldana, Gabe; Ho, Xu. VARIATION OF SNPS RELATED TO DISEASES IN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS.
Insight to the underlying genetic variation for diseases may provide a better understanding of what risk factors certain populations have. Using the data gathered by the 1000 Genomes Project, we are able to compare SNPs of different human populations. Using the population genetics information on the 1000 Genomes Browser, we calculated whether or not certain SNPs of diseases are in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. This area of research is hoping to allow researchers to localize the disease-associated regions more precisely, also to study recombination, natural selection, and population structure.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ECKDAHL
Scott Schlesser, Matt Gillstrom. NATIONAL WILD TURKEY FEDERATION.
We would be informing the audience on the National Wild Turkey Federation organization and how it helps conservation as a whole. The NWTF deals with mulitple areas of research and getting the public involved including the youth. The habitat of conservation and the youth is what keeps conservation alive today.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. C

Empirical Projects

Ackerman, Diana. GIARDIASIS: A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE PARASITE GIARDIA LAMBLIA.
The goal of this review is education of travelers and recreationalists about Giardiasis. Giardiasis is a worldwide diarrheal illness caused by the microscopic parasite Giardia lamblia. Locally, it is the most frequently identified cause of water-borne protozoan disease in these United States. Clinical presentation of Giardiasis ranges from asymptomatic cyst passage to symptoms that include watery, often foul-smelling, explosive diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence and belching. Symptoms of more chronic infection can even include malabsorption, severe weight loss, and malnutrition. Infection usually occurs through ingestion of Giardia cysts in contaminated water and food. Giardiasis is diagnosed by identifying the parasitic trophozoites or cysts in stool samples. Mostly, Giardia infection is self-limiting, but when treatment is required, drug therapy is effective, and several studies have been conducted on the efficacy of these drugs. Prevention and control of Giardia is centered on education regarding personal hygiene and water sanitation. Proper water filtration is difficult in underdeveloped or developing areas so Giardiasis is often termed a “travelers disease,” so education of world travelers is of great importance in its control.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Couch, Brock; Gudehus, Brandon and Mantlo, Drew. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE.
Our poster gives a brief overview of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It also talks about some of the legal context and agencies that they have to deal with on a day to day basis.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Couch, Brock; Kellam, Jami and Brandon Gudehus. WATER CHEMISTRY AND WATER QUALITY OF OTO CREEK.
Our study investigated the water chemistry and water quality of Oto Creek on the Campus of Missouri Western State University. We measured the depth, horizontal flow, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, plant cover, and nearby traffic of vertebrates. We sampled upper, middle, and lower sites on the Oto Creek on the MWSU Campus. We found that all the sites were relatively comparable with each other for measured response variables. Reasons for the lack of relative variability will be discussed, but perhaps sites are not being significantly affected by outside causes. Likewise, the scale of investigation may be too small to demonstrate spatial variation.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KURT HARTMAN
Davis,Zach; Gaume, Cathi; Brown, Tim;. QUALITY DEER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION.
QDMA (Quality Deer Management Association) is a non-profit wildlife conservation organization dedicated to promoting sustainable, high quality, white-tailed deer populations, wildlife habitats and ethical hunting experiences. They use education, research, and management in partnership with hunters, landowners, natural resource professionals, and the public to achieve these goals.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
Freeman, David Harms, Nathan Ho, Xu Saldana, Gabe. ANNOTATION OF CONTIG19 OF THE DOT CHROMOSOME IN D. BIARMEPES.
Our project was to annotate a part of the dot chromosome on Drosophila biarmipes. A contig from the Genomic Education Partnership was annotated as a group in order to identify the orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster. Our goals were to complete the annotation project and submit files about the dot chromosome in Drosophila biarmipes in order to build databases. The project was split into four parts by a Genscan report. This project was completed computationally using BLAST and databases to compare to the contig given. Three complete genes were found with multiple isoforms. One predicted gene, by Genscan, was found to not be a gene.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. TODD ECKDAHL
Freeman, David Harms, Nathan. PROTEIN MODEL PREDICTION OF D. BIARMEPES ORTHOLOG WITH D. MELANOGASTER.
A gene found in D. biarmepes was annotated in a previous project. This gene coded for an ortholog found in D. melanogaster. The gene found predicts that the protein sequence had an additional intron for the D. biarmepes. This additional intron was studied in order to predict if protein function between the two species was altered by the addition. The use of I-TASSER and Fat Cat was used for protein structure prediction and alignment of the predicted structures.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. TODD ECKDAHL
(Graham, Krystal), (Daggett, Melissa). CAN THE AMOUNT OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS FOUND IN SOY PRODUCTS FEMINIZE MALES?.
Zebrafish are often studied to test potential endocrine disruptors. One such endocrine disruptor is estrogen and other estrogenic compounds that are found in a variety of common items, including plants such as soy, cosmetics, and plastics. The goal of this study was to determine how estrogen and soy concentrate would affect adult male zebrafish.
Faculty Sponsor: MELISSA DAGGETT
Graham, Krystal; Daggett, Melissa. THE USE OF SOY CONCENTRATE ON MALE ZEBRAFISH AS A POSSIBLE FEMINIZING AGENT..
Zebrafish are often studied to test potential endocrine disruptors. One such endocrine disruptor is estrogen and other estrogenic compounds that are found in a variety of common items, including plants such as soy, cosmetics, and plastics. The goal of this study was to determine how estrogen and soy concentrate would affect adult male zebrafish. \\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: MELISSA DAGGETT
Kennon, Caleb; Williams, Chase; Edwards, Curtis and Daggett, Melissa A. F. Daggett, . DNA MINOR GROOVE BINDING DRUG ALTERS THE EXPRESSION OF TOPOISOMERASE II ALPHA IN ZEBRAFISH.
Topoisomerase II alpha relieves supercoiling in the DNA helix during DNA replication. Topoisomerase II alpha is up-regulated in rapidly proliferating cells. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBDs) can down-regulate the expression of topoisomerase II alpha in cancer cells. Results have indicated a clinical role for MGBDs in regulating topoisomerase II alpha during cancer therapy. We have examined the effects of the MGBD berenil, on the expression of topoisomerase II alpha in rapidly dividing cells of zebrafish larvae. PCR analysis of topoisomerase II alpha expression in zebrafish larvae exposed to berenil indicated a down-regulation of topoisomerase II alpha compared to controls.
Faculty Sponsor: MELISSA DAGGETT
Kiefer, Ryan Kinney, Joe. YOU CAN'T EAT A TREE.
We are all familiar with the facts that cows eat grass and Termites eat wood. These are false. Cows in fact digest the bacteria that digest the grass cellulose and a termite digests a protest that digests the cellulose in wood. So do we have anything squirming around in us that could handle the job of digesting cellulose? We think we do. Using the information provided on [Website] and using NCBI Biotechnology website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/, our research has lead us to find 3 different types of bacteria in our gut flora that all have at least 1 of the 3 forms of cellulose gene required to digest cellulose, that was also found in termite and cow Bacteria. This however is not enough to solve the human cellulose digestion problem. We, or rather our bacteria, lack either the ability to make mass amounts of their cellulase enzymes or it’s the lack of a long ruminant digestive track to allow the bacteria the time and/or the extra mechanical work to breakdown cellulose to the point where we could gain nutrients. It could also be that we lack the space to accommodate a large enough colony, as cows primarily eat only grass. We also found there are many other reasons we cannot digest cellulose. We primarily use cellulose to help move food through our digestive track and also the digestion of cellulose results in methane production…an issue that could be most unpleasant.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Lovejoy, Jordan; Loftin, Jennifer. CONTIG 18 ANNOTATION.
Our project was to annotate a given contig within the Drosophila biarmipes genome to determine which, if any, proteins the genes within the contig code for. Our goals were to become familiar with genomic sequencing tools, achieve a full understanding of any genes within the contig, and annotate it accurately and efficiently. Our group was assigned contig 18, which had two predicted genes. Through computational sciences our contig was fully annotated. It was determined after analyzing the contig with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), that there were eight exons included in contig 18.1 which coded for a protein, and the single exon gene of 18.2 which did not code for a protein. Accordingly, after analysis of the eight exons within 18.1, a synaptotagmin paralog was determined to be coded by this sequence.
Faculty Sponsor: TODD ECKDAHL
Lovejoy, Jordan Shinneman, Claire . POSSIBLE INCORPORATION OF TUSP1 INTO MYXINE GLUTINOSA.
Spider silk serves as an extremely useful thread due into its tensile strength, which is 5x stronger than steel. Currently, there are only low yield sources of harvesting TuSp1, coming from actual spiders, genetically modified E.Coli, as well as genetically modified goats which produce spider silk in their milk. Through Bioinformatic tools available to us as well as many other web resources we compared the TuSp1 protein to genomes of sequenced organisms with hopes of finding another organism which may accept the gene. A hopeful species for the production was Myxine glutinosa, or the hagfish.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. TODD ECKDAHL
O'Keefe, Don, Dear,Matt. FORESTRY MANAGEMENT.
Forestry management is a long term project that can span decades or generations, and also a branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic aspects with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially protection, and forest regulation. This includes management for fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, forest genetic resources and other forest resource values. Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber removal, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. KURT HARTMAN
Patton, Danna and Mendenhall, Olivea. THE FUNGUS AMONG US; OR THE LACK THEREOF.
This study was designed to determine the species presence and diversity of fungus on the east facing hill at Missouri Department of Conservation in St. Joseph, Missouri. Our experimental design was to measure 5 meter by 5 meter plots, determine any fungus within the plots, and describe the substrate in which the specimen was found. We measured three elevations on the hill consisting of the top of the hill, middle of the hill, and the bottom of the hill. We also took ground temperature. To date we have not been able to document a substantial number of fungus individual.
Faculty Sponsor: KURT HARTMAN
Sandy Pitcher, Faith Mattis, Abby Lucas. MOSS DENSITY, CLUMP SIZE, AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTION ACROSS AN ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT .
The purpose of our research experiment was to measure the density of moss clumps across an elevation gradient on a north-facing hill. We hypothesized that the greater the angle, the fewer moss clumps would be present. A 5-meter belt transect established from high to low elevation in the MWSU Missouri Department of Conservation Forest. The slope angles were measured every five meters with one measurement used to record the downhill angle and one measurement to gauge the horizontal angle of the hill. We looked at three subplots within each plot. Within each subplot, the size of moss clumps and densities were measured. After all the data was collected, we made graphs to show the correlation between clump occurrence and slope angle. We also looked at moss species presence across space. We found moss clumps in higher densities at lower elevations, but this relationship was not statistically significant (p 0.05). We did not find a detectable correlation between moss species and slope angle.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. HARTMAN
Richardson, Carrie. PLASMODIUM VIVAX.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen. The most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria. Plasmodium vivax is just one of six species of parasites that commonly infect humans. Plasmodium vivax threatens nearly half the world’s population and is a significant impediment to achievement of the millennium (Douglas et al., 2012). This review examines current evidence on the etiologic agent, pathology, symptoms, life cycle, treatment, epidemiology, control, and history of Plasmodium vivax.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
ringler keith, luna ben and schumacher. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is committed to the conservation, protection, management, use and enjoyment of the state\\\'s natural and cultural resources for current and future generations. Renewing their emphasis on customer service. Many Michigan residents and visitors entrust their vacation and leisure time to the DNR.Building Strong Support for the Recreation Passport . The Recreation Passport puts the \\\"window sticker\\\" for state park entrance and boat access sites.Increasing Resident/Visitor Participation in Outdoor Recreation and Stopping the Decline in Hunting & Fishing. Hunters and anglers are vital to the DNR success.Michigan\\\'s Natural Resource-Based Economy. Michigan\\\'s natural resources play a vital role in supporting the state\\\'s economy through tourism, forest products and oil and gas exploration. Out recreational activities produce over 9 billion dollars in revenue annually. \\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: DR CHEVALIER
Stith, Erin. THE LAST GREAT CAVE TREK: INVESTIGATING CAVE DECOMPOSITION COMMUNITIES.
Tumbling Creek Cave, also known as the Ozark Underground Laboratory, in Taney County, Missouri is one of the most biologically diverse caves west of the Mississippi River and home to three species listed as endangered, the Tumbling Creek cavesnail, grey bat, and Indiana bat (Elliott and Aley, 2005). It is here that several ongoing studies take place. We worked on one of these studies this past January. The study tracks the population trends of invertebrates at five decomposition stations inside Tumbling Creek Cave. At the decomposition stations, we collected data including the type of wood used, how decomposed the wood was, dimensions of the wood, the species of invertebrates found and their length, and how many of each species was present. We were able to analyze our data using SPSS and see how it compared with the data previously collected. We noticed a significant difference between all the other stations and stations 2 and 3. The difference found did not seem to be affected by season. We also noticed that H. occidentalus, pseudoscorpion, was only found at station 4. Looking at all the data collected, we found some interesting trends emerging and continuing the study will help to understand these trends.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Thompson, Lacie. BIO315 HISTORICAL REVIEW: FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic flatworm \r\n\\r\\nthat is commonly known as the liver fluke. It \r\nis \\r\\ndistributed worldwide and can be found in \r\nvarious \\r\\ntypes of mammals, including humans. \r\nThis parasite \\r\\ncan also cause economic losses \r\nin sheep and \\r\\ncattle. It’s a very large fluke, \r\napproximately \\r\\n30µm long. Its leaf shaped, with \r\nthe testes being \\r\\nlarge and greatly branched \r\nand they are located \\r\\nbehind the ovaries. In \r\norder to complete the life \\r\\ncycle, F. hepatica \r\nrequires a freshwater snail to \\r\\nuse as an \r\nintermediate host, such as a Lymnea \\r\\nspecies. \r\nThe adults reside in the liver of the \\r\\nhosts. \r\nThe eggs are passed out of the liver and \\r\\ninto \r\nthe intestines to be voided with feces. They \r\n\\r\\nwill complete their life cycle in both the \r\nwater \\r\\nand snail and then penetrate some type \r\nof \\r\\nvegetation. Then humans will eat the \r\nraw/uncooked \\r\\nvegetation or cattle will feed on \r\nthe vegetation \\r\\nbecoming infected. You can \r\ndiagnose this infection \\r\\nby a stool sample and \r\nusing the eggs as a \\r\\ndiagnosis. To treat the \r\ninfection a doctor will \\r\\nprescribe you \r\ntriclabendazole.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
William Walker, Justin Berry, Joe Streett. FUNGAL DIVERSITY.
We surveyed the north-facing slope behind the MDC building on the MWSU campus. The goal was to conduct a spring assessment of the fungi on campus. We also documented the substrate that fungi prefer and the percentage that are toxic. Ten plots were laid in pairs of two, thirty-five meters apart, from Otto Creek in a south direction to the top of the hill. Square plots were 5 x 5 m in size. Data on fungal species, substrate type, and decomposition level of woody substrate were recorded for each plot. It was found that most fungi preferred trees as their growing substrate. Fungi were found in highest abundances on wood of decomposition level 2-3 (mid to high decay). By definition, wood decay level 1 has no signs of decomposition, and decay level 4 is nearly disintegrated. It was also found that crust fungi are the most common fungal morphotype (phylum basidiomycota) for April 2013. Interestingly 100% of our sampled fungal species were hypothetically edible, and none are listed as toxic.\\r\\n
Faculty Sponsor: KURT HARTMAN

Historical Papers

Born,Banks. DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM.
Abstract Diphyllobothrium latum is a type parasite known for eating raw or uncooked fish. Diphyllobothrium latum is common worldwide, which imperative to know about this type of parasite. Including the etiologic agent meaning the life cycle, and taxonomy. The Pathology and symptoms. The effects it has on humans, therefore what the treatment would be. The epidemiology and control of the parasite. The transmission, cultural contribution to transmission and the methods to help prevent the disease. Also the history of the parasite. The host-parasite interaction, contributions by health researchers, and major breakthroughs, epidemics, and repercussions.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Cole, Trevor. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES.
Abstract- In my report I will be looking at Ascaris lumbricoides the largest and most prevalent of all tapeworms. It is the most common parasitic worm in humans with estimates of 25% of humans being infected with the disease. I will discuss the parasites Life cycle, common symptoms involved with being infected, treatments of choice, control of the parasite, and the historic aspects of A. lumbricoides.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Cole, Trevor. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES.
Abstract- In my report I will be looking at Ascaris lumbricoides the largest and most prevalent of all tapeworms. It is the most common parasitic worm in humans with estimates of 25% of humans being infected with the disease. I will discuss the parasites Life cycle, common symptoms involved with being infected, treatments of choice, control of the parasite, and the historic aspects of A. lumbricoides.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Lucas, Abby. EAST AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS: A HISTORICAL REVIEW.
East African Sleeping Sickness is a rare, acute form of African Sleeping Sickness. The etiological agent associated with the disease is Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Its symptoms are quick and, if untreated, can result in death. Treatment of the disease is often in the form of suramin or melarsoprol. The tsetse fly is responsible for spreading the parasites, and cautions such as controlling vector populations, altering human activities, and replacing livestock with a resistant species are being taken to limit the spread. The disease has a long history and has dated back to early African civilizations, although infection numbers were low.
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY
Ludwig, Rebecca. TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes Chagas disease, a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs. This disease is a significant public health issue and still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. There are two forms of this disease, either found in the bloodstream or tissues. Discovered in 1909, there are at least 8 million people diagnosed with Chagas disease. Symptoms vary due to either the acute or chronic phase of this infection. Two drugs of choice are nifutimox and benznidazole. Chagas disease is still active, and aspects such as host-parasite interactions and genetic variability need further investigations in the attempt to eradicate the disease.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Pearson, Sara. ACANTHAMOEBA POLYPHAGA.
This poster is going to focus on Acanthamoeba polyphaga which is a free living amoeba that can cause disease to humans. Acanthamoeba polyphaga is capable of causing Acanthamoeba keratitis and Granulomatous amebic encephalitis which can be detrimental to human health.
Faculty Sponsor: DAVID ASHLEY
Rapp, Kari. LEISHMANIA MEXICANA.
Leishmania mexicana, an intracellular parasite member of the Protozoa subkingdom, is one way for an individual to develop cutaneous leishmaniasis as a disease state. Infection of the parasite is caused by an infected Lutzomyia sand fly bite. Although this disease state is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization, they estimate the worldwide prevalence to be approximately 12-15 million cases, with annual mortality of about 60,000 (Vector-Borne Viral Infections, 2013). Infected flies inject infective promatigotes into the host where they are soon phagocytized by the body’s immune cells. Within the cells, the promatigotes transform into amastigotes which eventually burst out of the cells to infect neighboring cells. Insect repellants, keeping the skin covered, the use of bed nets, and avoiding activities when sand flies are most active are ways to control vector-host interaction. Vector control may be difficult to obtain for an extended period because of the lack of infrastructure and dedication in developing countries. The long term effects of the disease include severe deformities such as degradation of the ear pinna and bacterial infections. Vaccine treatment options are minimal due to the lack of research for the disease. There are various treatment options including parenteral, oral, and local therapies. Additional research should be conducted to verify these options as effective on-going treatment.
Faculty Sponsor: ASHLEY
Schultze, Ashley. DIPYLIDIUM CANINUM HISTORIC REVIEW.
Dipylidiasis is caused by a parasite Dipylidium caninum. Dipylidium is a tapeworm and has characteristic taxonomy with a head, neck, and proglottids, as well as some other defining characteristics. Two pores in each segment and eggs in packets are unique to this parasite. Dipylidium infects dogs, cats, and in some circumstances humans. The larva of the tapeworm grows in a flea and then the flea is ingested by a mammal in which the larval worm grows into an adult in the intestines. Humans get infected either by eating an infested flea or by kissing their infected household pets. Over history there have been several cases of Dipylidium infections in dogs and cats but only a few in humans. The humans that get infected usually are children. The best method of control and prevention is to give flea medication to pets and to limit intimate contact with pets. The best known cure at this point is the drug Praziquantal.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Trueblood, Kamay. SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI, BLOOD FLUKE.
This presentation provides information on the occurrence, lifecycle, pathology, epidemiology, treatment and impact of Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni on humans in areas where this disease is prevalent. It discusses details and characteristics of the S. mansoni parasite, methods to control infection, and also how it can be prevented.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Unruh, Jon. TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE.
This historical review attempts to efeciantly outline Trypanosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by the tsetse fly, also known as West Africa sleeping sickness. This report helps document the standard aspects of the host-parasite interactions involved with this vector spread parasitic disease. Most detrimental to Central Africa, Trypanosomiasis affects humans living in close quarters with blood feeding flies.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. DAVID ASHLEY
Vaughn, Jessica. DIROFILARIA IMMITIS.
In this report I plan to inform you more about heartworm found in dogs. I will tell you about the etiologic agent that causes the disease and the pathology and symptoms of the disease. Also I would like to share treatment and prevention methods as well as indicate how the disease is spread. Last I would like to share past history of the disease and its prevalence throughout the years.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY

Internship/Practicum Experience

Bremer, Brittany and Mendenhall, Olivea. THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY.
The American Fisheries Society is to improve the conservation and sustainability of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems by advancing fisheries and aquatic science and promoting the development of fisheries professionals.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER

Literature Reviews

Daggett, Crystal; Mueller, Phil; Roberts, Kyle. INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER.
This poster is about the International Wolf Center. They are designed around helping people to understand more about wolves and getting them involved in their recovery and management.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY CHEVALIER
Lammoglia, Nick. HUMAN CYSTICERCOSIS.
Human cysticercosis is a disease caused by the tapeworm, Taenia solium, and infects many worldwide. The disease can infect nearly any organ within the body causing widespread variance of symptoms and making it one of the most pathogenic tapeworm species infecting humans. Though severe, the infection is treatable and controllable when proper steps are taken. Historically, human cysticercosis has effected many different communities worldwide.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Lord, Jeremy Compton, Carly Lichtenegger, Ryan. MONTANA AUDUBON SOCIETY.
Abstract We researched the Montana Audubon Society. The Montana Audubon Society is a very active organization. It helps protect the wildlife and birds in Montana. Our research team researched about the different activities that the society does. We also found the certain objectives that they follow when working on projects. We also included the activities that they put on and support throughout the state. The poster also consists of responsibilities that the Montana Audubon Society is charge of completing and doing. The project overall shows the many different aspects of the Montana Audubon Society and what it is all about.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. C. D. CHEVALIER
Poole, Crystal, Williams, Nick . MONTANA FISH, WILDLIFE & PARKS.
This poster describes the Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Department. It includes the agency's organizational structure, mission, goals, legal context, major responsibilities, activities/programs run by the department, major administrative challenges, other agencies it is involved with, and the types of wildlife professionals employed by this department.
Faculty Sponsor: CARY D. CHEVALIER
Reynolds, Brandon. ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA: A HISTORICAL REVIEW.
ABSTRACT This historical review presents information about the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica for the general use of the public in hopes of lessening the widespread range and affect of this parasite. E. histolytica is an unusual parasitic amoeba that can infect humans via ingestion of cysts. These cysts are found in contaminated water sources, and they can be found potentially anywhere in the world. This parasite usually stays in the lumen of the gut, where it will phagocytize red blood cells. The deadly form of this parasite is when it becomes invasive. Although cases of this occurring is rare, it can happen, and does occur in roughly 70,000 of the 10 million cases diagnosed each year. When the parasite invades the body, it can travel to any ectopic site and become a much larger issue, such as the case when it creates liver abscesses, or when it feeds on the brain. Entamoeba histolytica can be diagnosed with a simple stool sample, and treated with medications such as metronidazole, and can be relatively easily destroyed if caught early enough.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY
Stith, Erin, Wiley, Mary Kate, Williams, Virginia. OVERVIEW OF WILDLIFE STRIKE POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION.
The goal of this poster project is to review the objectives, challenges, and implementation strategies of wildlife strike policy at airports in the United States. This poster will also include the different organizations involved, both state and federal, along with their roles and the current status of this policy issue.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Thornton, Bethany Bembrick, Mitchell. BAT CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL.
Our poster presents the organizational structure, History, Goals, activities, Mission statement, partners, and challenges of Bat Conservation International.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CHEVAILER
(Unruh, Jon) (Boyd, Trevor) (Reeves, Dalton). NYATI CONSERVATION CORPS: NGO POLICY.
This presentation describes the processes and policies which allow non-government organizations the capacity to function efficiently. Non- government, non-profit, and general volunteer work are critical to the development of professionals in all realms. Specific to wildlife and conservation Nyati Conservation Corps allows students the opportunity to volunteer on big game reserves in South Africa. Once stationed students spend three months observing African conservation techniques and are permitted to conduct a small research project of their choosing. Nyati seeks to provide real life experience for future wildlife professionals.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Wakefield, Calvin. Lee, Tyler. Howe, Dillion.. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME.
Our group researched Alaska Department of Fish and Game to discover what it does and how it does it. We identified the department’s goals, mission, and major roles, which deal with the management of or the public education of fish and game management. We were able to conclude the state’s main responsibilities are caring for, improving, and handling of fish and game in a way that assists and educates the greatest amount of the people. We were able to conclude the major activities and challenges faced by the department. We were able to identify the agency’s structure and organization.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. CARY CHEVALIER
Whitten,Dominque. PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI.
Paragonimus westermani is a lung fluke that affects many oriental countries in the world today. This parasite is transmitted by eggs becoming miracidia and seeking out snail intermediate host, later they become cercariae and invade a crab or crawfish, then the uncooked crab/crawfish is eaten by a human, then they are digested in the small intestine and spread to the lungs, finally they are adults in the lungs and coughed out or passed in the feces. The treatment of choice for this parasite is Praziquantel but Bithionol is used as an alternative
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ASHLEY

DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS

Literature Reviews

Courtney, Laura; Ripper, Corey. BRANDING: THE HISTORY AND USES IN TODAY’S MARKET PLACE.
The purpose of the literature review of branding is to explore the history of the branding concept in Marketing. This review also includes how the branding concept is used in today’s market place. The benefits and limitations to companies is also presented.
Faculty Sponsor: VIVEK MADUPU

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Freeman, David. IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF PERMETHYLATED FURANOSIDES.
The structures of eight permethylated pentofuranosides were investigated. The ring potential energy surface (PES) was calculated using B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) and plotted on a 3-d coordinate as a function of phase angle and amplitude. The computational results were compared to the J-values found using NMR data. Initial data suggests that the simple equilibrium between North and South minima are not complete enough to describe the system.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JONATHAN RHOAD

Empirical Projects

Cassity Andie, Rhoad Jon, Ruark Chris. IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF CONFORMATIONAL PREFERENCES OF PERMETHYLATED FURANOSIDES.
In this study, a new computational method was developed. This method analyzes the full potential energy surface of a furanoside in an effort to predict the most likely conformations adopted by a furanose ring. The ring potential energy surfaces for the permethylated furanosides was calculated according to B3LP/G-311G (d,p). All hydrogen bonding was stripped from the ring in an effort to minimize chemical influences on the ring. The computed molecule was then synthesized and the computational predictions compared to proton-proton three-bond coupling constants obtained from 1D NMR tests. The NMR spectra show successful synthesis, and coupling constants within .5 Hertz of the computational data. The results suggest the conformation of the ribose studied is α-ribose H4-H5r.
Faculty Sponsor: JON RHOAD
Loftin, Jennifer; Lovejoy, Jordan; Woodford, Jeffrey.. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF ANION ADSORPTION TO METAL ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS .
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), which are a new class of porous solid materials, have potential applications in catalysis, hydrogen storage, carbon dioxide capture, drug delivery, biomedical imaging, and chemical separations. They can be designed for specific applications by joining certain metals and organic linkers. MIL-53(Al) is the MOF specifically used in this study because it was shown in prior experiments to exhibit selective anion exchange and have stability in aqueous solutions. Our goal is to compare the anion selectivity of MIL-53(Al). To achieve this goal we are conducting a two part study. The first part comprises of ab initio calculations to find the interaction energies between anions and MOF structural binding units. The second part involves performing molecular dynamics simulations to examine the equilibrium distributions of anions in the pores of the MOF and to demonstrate the selectivity.
Faculty Sponsor: JEFFREY WOODFORD
Edlin, Melanie and Rhoad, Jonathan. MULTIPLE STEP SYNTHESIS OF 2-DEOXY-GLYCERO-TETROSE.
Investigation into synthetic methods for saccharides such as furanoses is essential to understanding the biological importance of carbohydrate conformations to proper function in the cellular processes they mediate. Despite the biochemical significance of sugars, instruction in carbohydrate chemistry is limited in undergraduate chemistry courses. A laboratory experiment is described here for advanced undergraduate organic students. The multi-step synthesis of 2-deoxy-glycero-tetrose from inexpensive 1,2,4-triol is under investigation. . Isopropylidene acetal and carbonyl protecting groups have been tried for the selective protection of the vicinal alcohols at carbons one and two of the triol. A variety of oxidation techniques have been tested which have yielded limited success toward formation of the desired aldehyde.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. JONATHAN RHOAD
Roades, Michael; Saldana, Gabriel; Hughes, Austyn. QUANTIFICATION OF ELEMENTS IN SOIL USING STANDARD ADDITION WITH PORTABLE XRF.
Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry offers a fast and efficient way to identify elements in environmental samples. Quantification of elements in complex matrices of soil samples, however, can be elusive for elements of low atomic mass or concentration. Standard addition offers a viable technique to alleviate such matrix problems. A Tracer III –SD (Bruker Elemental) was used to determine Ca, Cu, K, Mn, and Fe in over 120 soil samples from the loess hills in northwest Missouri. Optimization of instrument parameters included choice of excitation window, keV filters, and use of vacuum.
Faculty Sponsor: SHAUNA L. HILEY

Historical Papers

Bridgman, Joseph. SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIMITRI MENDELEEV.
I will be presenting on three of Dmitri Mendeleev’s contributions to the field of Chemistry. Without question, Mendeleev’s work with the Periodic Table of Elements was the greatest mark that he left on Chemistry. The development was revolutionary in the realm of teaching chemistry, due to its systematic component. It was great enough that Mendeleev was nominated for a Nobel Prize three different times. He also contributed by developing pyrocollodion, which was an explosive powder that produced no smoke. He was commissioned by the Russian Navy to produce it, in hopes to improve their firearms. The chemical he developed was not accepted. Finally, Mendeleev sought extensively to discover an element that he predicted to be smaller than hydrogen, based on the erroneous Aether concept.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY
Britt, Toni. SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF ADOLPH VON BAEYER.
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was born in Berlin, Germany on October 31, 1835. Adolf Von Baeyer spent most of his time wrapped up in scientific experiments, even before he went on to study them in University. After studying physics and mathematics for his first two years, he rekindled his love for chemistry with work on methyl chloride, which resulted on his first published work. Following this, he worked with many noted scientists and published a lot of his own work. After earning his doctorate, Adolf von Baeyer began teaching and lecturing at the University of Berlin, which although he was paid little, he was given a nice lab, so he was okay with the trade. It was during this period that von Baeyer achieved some of his greatest work, including his work on indigo and the theory of carbon-dioxide assimilation in formaldehyde. Eventually von Baeyer would go on to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1905 after being raised to the hereditary nobility. Not only was von Baeyer successful in his work and theories, but he was also very influential, as he created a school that nurtured fifty prospective University teachers.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY
Cochran, Kelly. SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF JOSEPH PRIESTLEY.
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) was a clergyman and scientist whose passion for God drove his scientific endeavors and search for answers. He is best known for his 1774 discovery of oxygen, which he found by isolating oxygen from other gases using a pneumatic trough. Priestly defended the obsolete phlogiston theory to his death, even referring to oxygen as “dephlogisticated air,” rejecting early stages of the chemical revolution. However, his experiments on gases, invention of soda water, extensive writings on electricity, and countless other scientific accomplishments make him a chemist that changed the world.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY
Hulett, Derek. SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF ROBERT BUNSEN.
Robert Bunsen was born in 1811 in Göttingen, Germany. He was accepted into college in 1828 and obtained a Ph. D. in 1831. He then began working on arsenous acid, discovering that iron oxide hydrate as a precipitating agent is one of the most effective cures for arsenic poison. He almost died of arsenic poisoning, and lost sight in his right eye from a cacodyl explosion. He became a full professor at University of Marburg in 1841. That year, he created the Bunsen cell battery using carbon electrodes, which were much cheaper than the platinum electrodes being used at that time. In 1852, Bunsen started using electrolysis to produce pure metals such as lithium. In 1855, he and his assistant perfected the Bunsen burner, which is still in use today. He used it for spectrum analysis, which is how he discovered cesium in 1860 and rubidium in 1861.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY
Miles, Eddie. SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICHAEL FARADAY.
Michael Faraday was a mostly self-educated English scientist. He contributed much to the field of chemistry, though he was most well-known for his work in electricity and magnetism. His important work in chemistry includes the discovery of benzene and compounds of carbon and chlorine, the liquefying of various gases, which helped to establish the fact that gases are simply vapors of liquids, and the first use of what has now become the Bunsen burner. Faraday’s lasting influences include (but are in no way limited to) the Bunsen burner, terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion, the electric motor, diamagnetism, and Faraday’s law of induction, which details the relationship between electric and magnetic fields.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY
Stewart, Lauren. ROSALIND E. FRANKLIN.
Rosalind Franklin, born July 25, 1920, was a molecular biology pioneer. Franklin was responsible for much of the research that led to the understanding of DNA. Franklin got her doctorate in physical chemistry from Cambridge University in 1945. She studied X-ray diffraction at King’s College in London, which led to her discovery of DNA. After her research was leaked to another scientist, the DNA double helical structure was discovered. Franklin did not get much acknowledgement for all of her hard work in the discovery of DNA. Rosalind Franklin was a pioneer of her age and easily overlooked. She did not get the acknowledgement that Watson, Crick, and Wilkins did for the research that she had worked so hard on. Unfortunately, Rosalind died at a young age of ovarian cancer and did not get included in the Nobel Prize for the DNA double helical structure.
Faculty Sponsor: MICHAEL DUCEY

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE MATH AND PHYSICS

Empirical Projects

Heckman, Ken; Wilmes, Steven; Robinson, Jeff; Purcell, Laura. MYCHORALREP.NET.
The focus of this project is to create a social networking website for choral directors. Before this project, there wasn't a way for choral directors to connect with each other about the repertoire that they were performing for their concerts. With MyChoralRep, directors from all over the country involved in all forms of vocal performance can connect and share their music programs from their concerts. They will be able to create their own personal profile, add concert programs to their profile, and will be able to view other director’s profiles and programs. In addition, they will be able to search for other choral directors and performance titles that have been entered into the application. The technologies that we used to create this website were HTML, XHTML, PHP, CSS, Javascript, and SQL.
Faculty Sponsor: CONNIE HECKER
Martin, Jeff; Schildknecht, Ashley; Dowell, Jarrod; Edwards, Anna; Jacobsen, Joel. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA WORK ORDER SYSTEM.
Our project was to design a website for the Boy Scouts of America. The Boy Scouts of America host a national Jamboree every four years on a large campground. They have facilities and activities on their campground for 50 thousand people for ten days. We used PHP, SQL and other technology to build them a website that can track work orders. Before we made our website, they used a paper file system to track if something was broken. With the new website that we have created, the Boy Scouts can track work orders, assign technicians, handle vehicle requests and many other functions from their computer, smart phone or tablet.
Faculty Sponsor: CONNIE HECKER
Mullin,Jason. INDIVIDUAL COHESIVENESS .
Place 7 strangers in a group, introduce them to a client with a problem. Spend the next 9 months planning, negotiating, developing, testing and creating a product for that client. Our challenges were set and our goals established. This project became more than just documenting a process, it’s now a part of us, a group of individual strangers who united to solve some problems. The Missouri Academy of Science now has a new look, feel and a modified approach to business operations. This all because 7 people helped change the way the world sees and interacts through their website.
Faculty Sponsor: CONNIE HECKER

Literature Reviews

Frederick, Janna. FRACTALS, A TYPE OF MATH EVERYONE CAN ENJOY.
Fractals are seen in nature and are used in mathematics, science, physics, art, and architecture. This research explores the history of simple fractals and describes the simple construction and dimensions of several different simple fractals.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. LORI MCCUNE

DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE/LEGAL STUDIES/SOCIAL WORK

Empirical Projects

Barnett, Cheryl. AA IN THE PRISON INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT CENTERS .
It is estimated that Alcoholics Anonymous is the most widely used 12 step alcohol abuse program world wide. Spirituality/religiosity has been regarded by AA as an important part of recovery from addiction. This study examined how Alcoholics Anonymous is utilized within the prison Institutional Treatment Centers in the United States. More specifically the this the research explored whether or not there was a alcohol treatment program in the prison or and whether or not spirituality/religion was considered an important part of the recovery process for an alcoholic, A sample size of 23 states was used to gather data and opinions of Probation and Parole Offices in the Department of Corrections and Judicial System. The results in this study found that spirituality/religiosity is not the primary treatment focus in the prison Institutional Treatment Centers, but the ITC does include AA as an optional group that the offenders can voluntarily attend. Also, the findings of the study revealed that 20 of the 23 states surveyed did have an alcohol treatment modality in their prison and AA was offered as an optional group that the offenders can voluntarily attend.
Faculty Sponsor: LINDSTEADT
Domon, Uraina. ALTERATIVE TREATMENTS TO ALCOLHOLISM .
This study addressed issues related to alcohol addiction as well as possible treatment options. 50 states were contacted and surveyed to evaluate how they view alcohol as being of concern, and to determine what treatments option their states utilize. Some of the research examined showed that there are different approaches to treating alcohol addiction such as the medical, community based, and religious/spiritual approach, and that all showed signs of successfully treating individually dealing with addiction.
Faculty Sponsor: LINDSTEADT
Eggleston, Nicole. : DOES GOD INTERFERE WITH WHAT TREATMENT WORKS FOR THE ALCOHOLIC?.
This explores the impact that religion has on treatment options for alcoholics and drug addicts. The main focus question for this study is can different states mandate an individual to participate in treatment that is religious in nature? Secondary part of that question is what are treatment options available for those who are not religious, and do not believe in God at all? In researching these and other questions by calling probation and parole departments in each of the different states we found that the programs offered, although religious in nature, focused more on spirituality and strength and not necessarily religion. When calling and speaking to different states it was found that the states cannot mandate AA/NA participation with the religious component. Spirituality is encouraged as part of treatment but obviously they cannot force someone to believe in God and that God will cure their disease. This study focuses on what treatment works for people with addictive personalities such as alcoholism and drug addiction.
Faculty Sponsor: LINDSTEADT
Nielson, Danielle. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS SYMPTOMS AND CHILDHOOD TRAUMA.
This study examines the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, adult mental illnesses, and related hospitalizations. A better understanding of potential triggers and unresolved childhood traumatic events could improve treatment and discharge plans. The BASIS-32 is used by hospitals to determine symptoms of mental illness. ACE Score comes from a study by the Center for Disease Control. This questionnaire asks ten questions surrounding childhood abuse and household dysfunction. Using the ACE survey as an assessment tool we examine trauma to provide a more succinct picture of some of the underlying issues contributing to chronic illness that examining behavior and symptoms avoids.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. GERI DICKEY
Weekly, Melissa. THE ACADEMIC WELL BEING OF THE SOCIAL WORK DISCIPLINE.
The purpose of this study is to examine the growth in numbers of the academic field of Social Work and the trends that have emerged. Will the current rate of growth in the field of Social Work lead to a job market that can not accommodate the growth of the discipline? This study will help provide insight and data for a more firm knowledge of trends, growth or declination and how this growth compares to other social science fields such as Criminal Justice, Psychology and Sociology. We consulted the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), the National Association of Social Workers, the U.S. Department of Labor and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).
Faculty Sponsor: DR. GREGORY LINDSTEADT

Internship/Practicum Experience

Barszczak, Jessica. NONVERBAL CUES USED BY CSS WORKERS AND THE NEED FOR FURTHER TRAINING.
The purpose of this study was to see if additional training on nonverbal cues needs to be provided to COmmunity Support Specialists (CSS) workers at Family Guidance Center. Thirty- five CSS workers were surveyed on nonverbal cues to identify what nonverbal cues they most used with their clients and what type of additional training they felt would be helpful in order to continue their education on nonverbal cues. The investigator called all surveys and data. Results showed that CSS workers used all of the nonverbal cues that they were surveyed on. In addition 68% of CSS workers that they thought more extensive training would be helpful during the initial training and throughout the year on nonverbal cues. Discussion focused on the value of nonverbal cues to the company and how the results of the study indicated that more training was needed for CSS workers.
Faculty Sponsor: JIM HOSSLER

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS POLITITICAL SCIENCE AND SOCIOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Gray, Rockwell. EDUCATION GIVES FAMILIES AND SOCIETY OPPORTUNITIES.
The main focus of this research project is to discuss common factors that make individuals and their families decide to or not to pursue education. This project also discusses the benefits of obtaining a good education and the common problems and risks that individuals and their families face if they do not complete their education, especially in today’s economic system. There are a lot of negative effects of neglecting education, some of which will determine the potential opportunities individuals will have throughout their lives. The research also discusses why it is important to understand education and why it is important to individuals, families, and to society.
Faculty Sponsor: ALI KAMALI
Sanchez Villanueva, Jamie. MARRIED TO A MEXICAN: LIFE WITH AN ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT.
Married to a Mexican: Life with an Illegal Immigrant Jamie Sanchez Villanueva (Class of 2013) For many years illegal immigrants from Mexico were welcomed in the United States. Today there are many negative stereotypes towards illegal immigrants. This research was to identify the opinions of effects of illegal immigration to different areas of the U.S., and to find out about the legalization process and how the process effects families. I created and distributed ten questionnaires. The questionnaires were delivered to ten women. Five of these women had some type of personal relationship with an illegal. The remaining five did not.
Faculty Sponsor: ALI KAMALI
Tovey, Lucky. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES.
Society strives to achieve a myth based notion of a perfect family. However, there have been changes in the social structures of our society that have caused us to redefine what a family is. Single-parent families have been stigmatized and blamed for the downfall of the family unit. Research shows that single-parent children endure greater risks of violence, drug use, early sexual activity, and psychological problems. With a strong support system those effects can be reduced. Data from questionnaires of single-parents compared to results of professional studies shows society’s view and concerns that appear in these family units.
Faculty Sponsor: ALI KAMALI
Williams, Tarcha. HOW HAS TECHNOLGY IMPACTED THE FAMILY UNIT.
This paper investigates relationship with technology in families. The aim is to find out how technology has impacted the family. The sample for this study includes ten families. It was found that technology definitely has an impact on the family unit. According to the experts and the participants the part took part in the questionnaire technology can be seen in a negative and positive light. Since technology has basically taken over families lives, it has brought families together and separated them. In some situations it has done both. Modern technology has become a commodity for some families that’s always on the go. The family unit tends to communicate through modern day technology because it’s convenient. Technology has become a part of our lifestyle in the twenty-first century. Families can use technology to their advantage and disadvantage since its right at their fingertips. Technology is on the rise and families must get on board with limitations or miss the boat.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. ALI KAMALI

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

Empirical Projects

Isom, Brent. APPLYING THE ORDER OF THE MASS TO THE MODERN CHURCH.
The Mass is the central event of the Roman Catholic Church. Even though the Mass is specifically a Catholic service, the order of the Mass Ordinary (the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei) provides a model for the way contemporary Christian worship services can be structured across denominations to create a more effective and theologically stronger culture of worship. While the texts of the Ordinary of the Mass may not be exactly the same as those of today’s popular worship songs, the general themes in each of the five parts can be found in the music of the church being written today. By choosing songs with similar lyrical content as those specific texts of the Mass and arranging them in the same order, it provides for a more purposeful and thematically diverse worship service.
Faculty Sponsor: JASON BASKIN
Keller, Thomas. MUSIC AND SOUND FOR VIDEO GAMES.
Video games have come incredibly far over the years; from the famous Super Mario Bros. to the ever-popular Call of Duty: Black Ops II. In an ever-growing market we see video games more and more predominant. As we’ve seen video games grow over the years, we’ve seen the graphics, music, sounds, and other general characteristics evolve as well. Through research we discover that music and sound is perceived differently in video games than any other media. Linear narratives are perceived the same by each person. Whereas Non-linear media(video games), each person may have a completely different experience. These experiences, along with the combination of diegetic and non-diegetic sounds, help to create a sense of immersion and interactiveness to the game.
Faculty Sponsor: JASON BASKIN
Whitehorn, Liz. MUSIC MAESTRO MARIO! WHY MUSIC IS ESSENTIAL IN VIDEO GAMES.
Ever wondered about the music that plays in the background of a video game? For example: How well the music fits the gameplay. Does one simply turn the music off because it interferes with gameplay? Through various different studies performed this research explores the basic need of music in video games. Is it really essential? Discover the key players in development of music hits in popular video games as well as the need for such research. Learn why players either crave or ignore the musical backgrounds they encounter. Develop an understanding as to why video games were created with music to begin with and what this means for the future.
Faculty Sponsor: JASON BASKIN

DEPARTMENT OF NURSING

Analytical Papers and Analyses

Hansen, Amy; Thompson, Kristin. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE CHRISTIAN WOMEN'S FORGIVENESS MEASURE.
The purpose of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Christian Women's Forgiveness Measure. The goals include testing the reliability and perform a factor analysis. The measure consists of 93 items in a Likert scale format. We used a convience sample of 277 Christian women. The data analysis thus far has shown 27 items as important and robust with a Eignevalues greater than 1.0.
Faculty Sponsor: GRETCHEN QUENSTEDT-MOE RN, MS, PHD

Empirical Projects

Yeh, Pi-Ming; Briton, Tiffany; Clark, Brittany . THE COMPARISONS OF COPING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING BETWEEN COLLEGE STUDENTS AND PATIENTS .
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of anxiety, depression, coping strategies, and psychological well-being between college students and patients with mental illness. There were 256 college students and 54 patients with mental illness recruited in this study. There were significant differences of anxiety, depression, coping strategies, and psychological well-being between college students and patients with mental illness. Patients with mental illness had higher scores of anxiety and depression, and lower score of psychological well-being than college students. Patients had higher scores of using emotional coping strategies and less using problem focus coping than college students.
Faculty Sponsor: YEH, PI-MING
Yeh, Pi-Ming; Mallya, Lucy ; Demint, Lesa . THE COMPARISONS OF FAMILY INTERACTION, AND SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING BETWEEN STUDENTS AND PATIENTS .
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of family interaction, personality, and spiritual well-being between college students and patients with mental illness. There were 256 college students and 54 patients with mental illness recruited in this study. There were significant differences of family interaction, personality, and spiritual well-being between college students and patients with mental illness. The parents of patients with mental illness had higher scores of using negative rearing attitude than college students’ parents. College students had higher scores of positive personality than patients. College students also had higher scores of spiritual well-being than patients.
Faculty Sponsor: YEH, PI-MING

Literature Reviews

Balak, Michael; Ueligger, Johnathon; Zielenski, Jessica . A NURSING INVESTIGATION INTO ADOLESCENT SAFETY OF ONLINE ACTIVITY .
The Internet is a system of enormous technical and social complexity that connects billions of users worldwide. More than 80% of American youth log on to online media daily. It is critical to explore, understand, and develop ways to promote safe and secure use of this ever expanding resource. The Internet is transforming the social world of adolescents by influencing how they communicate, establishing and maintaining relationships, and finding social support. Undoubtedly there are positive and negative aspects of internet usage. We believe that is it important to educate young people and parents about the prevalence of negative internet interactions, give them resources to open lines of communication, and teach them to become advocates of early detection and reporting of unsafe internet use. A nurse can play a vital role in assisting in the awareness and reversal of unsafe internet practices, specifically cyber bullying. We believe that the role of the nurse in identification of young individuals exhibiting risky behavior while using the internet can decrease the severity of negative effects experienced and increase the safety of everyone. This paper will help to compile information for the nursing body about incidence statistics, negative effects of behaviors such as cyber bullying, ways of identify at-risk-individuals, and how to utilize different resources to educate parents and youth on ways to promote safety.
Faculty Sponsor: CRISTI CAMBELL
Barnes, Joshuah and Smither, Travis. ASSESSING THE ADOLESCENT FOLLOWING A HEAD INJURY.
The purpose of this literature review was to compare the guidelines for potential concussion assessment in the Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) Emergency Guidelines for Missouri Schools and Child Care Facilities with current evidence-based practice, and to propose any changes that the researches feel should take place. The researchers found that the DHSS guidelines appear to leave out important subjective information in the assessment of an adolescent with a head injury. The researches have concluded that the DHSS guideline for the assessment should be updated to include the subjective information along with other factors. The President of the Missouri Association of School Nurses has been contacted to propose these changes in an attempt to implement them into practice. The Stetler Model was used in this project. This model guided the researchers through preparation and identification of the problem, validation and synthesis of the evidence, comparitive evaluation to make a decision about the research, translation to develop a proposal for change, and evaluation.
Faculty Sponsor: CRYSTAL HARRIS
Barr, Melissa; Chappell, Tiffany; Troutt, Courtney; Wall, Richard. DELIRIUM IN THE ICU.
The intensive care unit is an overly-stimulating environment that may potentiate delirium. In the past, ICU staff considered delirium to be a benign problem and often assumed it would clear once the patient left the ICU. Delirium is defined as an acute onset of disturbance in consciousness, inattention, and a change in cognition, that develops over a short period of time and can fluctuate over the course of a day (Allen & Alexander, 2012). Studies have underemphasized the need for standardized tools to detect delirium. Research findings indicate that ICU delirium continues to be under-diagnosed and often misinterpreted. Without proper diagnosis, delirium can result in complications such as increased length of hospital stay, increased costs, increased days on mechanical ventilation, and ultimately increased risk of mortality. The AACN recommends a set of evidence-based practices, known as the ABCDE bundle, that, when performed collectively and reliably, improve patients’ outcomes (Balas et al., 2012). The purpose of our paper is to increase understanding of delirium and its’ implications.
Faculty Sponsor: HEATHER KENDALL, RN, MSN, CCRN-CMC-CSC
Bridgman, Jeff; Carey, Jaci; Liechti, Kara; Merritt, Heidi. SIMULATION IN NURSING EDUCATION: BUILDING COMMUNICATION PROFICIENCY FOR IMPROVED PATIENT OUTCOMES.
Poor communication among healthcare workers has been linked to critical errors in patient care. With the recognition of this problem, nursing education programs are being challenged to seek ways to improve communication skills in student nurses. The purpose of this project was to examine current research evidence regarding the effectiveness of simulation as an educational avenue for promoting communication and collaboration skills in nursing students. One important emerging theme amongst our research findings was that simulation provides an opportunity outside of the clinical setting for students to practice communication in an environment that would not jeopardize patient safety.Patient simulation can transform the way communication is taught to nursing students and could have a major impact on improving patient safety in the future.
Faculty Sponsor: MACHELLE SKINNER
Cox, Morgan Ordnung, Kendra Palmer, Jordan. NURSING CARE FOR THE IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR.
Abstract There is an increasing rate of internal cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in the United States today. This increase is due to a rising number in sudden cardiac death and coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this paper will be to help educate the nursing community about the ICD so in return they could feel more confident in caring for a patient with an ICD and be able to educate their patients more on their device. The authors believe that knowing the history of the device, understanding sudden cardiac death and heart disease and the risk factors associated with them, the indication for an ICD and how the device works, the psychosocial aspect of the device and the main topics the patient needs to be educated on are all aspects in giving good quality care to a patient with an ICD. The main concern is that the nursing population has very experience in dealing with patients with and ICD even thought he numbers are rapidly increasing. Keywords: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, sudden cardiac death, coronary artery disease, psychosocial, quality care, nursing, education
Faculty Sponsor: CRISTI CAMPBELL
Dishon, Kalli; Conant, Jessica. THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVANCE DIRECTIVES IN END-OF-LIFE CARE PLANNING.
The purpose of our literature review was to examine the current state of evidence on advance directives and end-of-life planning and to provide recommendations for improving communication regarding patient wishes. There was a focus on three components of end-of-life planning. These include the perceptions of patients and nurses, effective approaches toward end-of-life planning, and effective communication. The ACE Star Model was used to provide a foundation for this research.
Faculty Sponsor: STEPHANIE CORDER
Falter, Ashley; Schmitt, Ashley; Elliott, Mackenzie; Grunder, Ashley. A NURSES ROLE IN RECOGNIZING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT.
Nearly 50% of child fatalities in 2010 were attributed to maltreatment, making this an extremely prevalent and attention demanding current issue. Cases of child maltreatment are often recognized first by third party persons involved with the child. As healthcare professionals, and more specifically health department nurses, it is crucially important to understand what constitutes child abuse and child neglect and to be able to recognize the differing forms of neglect and abuse. This project defines the prevalent symptoms of child maltreatment and examines the tools used by nurses to detect signs of child abuse and neglect among their patients. Nurses need to be educated about the tools needed in order to care for children who are experiencing abuse or neglect. It is a nurse’s responsibility to be consistently aware of the possibility of maltreatment when examining and communicating with children.
Faculty Sponsor: MARY JO GAY
Fields, Nicole Canterbury, Keri Cliff, Carla. ANIMAL ASSISTED THERAPY IN PEDIATRICS.
The principal objective of this review is to synthesize the existing literature related to the use of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) as it pertains to the treatment of the pediatric population. Empirical research has found that the presence of animals provide both physiological and psychological benefits. Hospitalized children not only deal with health issues but are also prone to psycho-social issues including isolation, depression, and fear. Adjunct therapies, such as animal-assisted therapy, can be used to address these complex issues. AAT can also be used outside of the hospital settings. Its use has been found to be helpful in promoting social behaviors, opening communication, focusing attention, and providing motivation to participate in therapy. The ACE STAR model was utilized to establish a relationship between the evidence found during this literature review and recommendations concerning the application of Animal Assisted Therapy.
Faculty Sponsor: BALDWIN, JULIE
Geary, Krista; Moore, Jaly; Nied, Ashley. FAMILY WITNESSED RESUSCITATION IN THE ICU AND ED.
The purpose of this poster is to evaluate the presence of family members during resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department. There are many benefits for family, staff, and patients. Some overall perspectives of the positive benefits are: aiding in grieving process, enhancing communication of patient status, and insuring family presence as a right. Results found that a universal issue was the lack of a policy allowing family presence (Howlett, Alexander, & Tsuchiya, 2010). The American Association of Critical Care Nurses supports these findings and encourages facilities to allow unrestricted visitation to promote patient outcomes (2011).
Faculty Sponsor: HEATHER KENDALL
Leone, Dominique; Nichols, Ashley; Armstrong, Kelly. CARDIAC REHABILITATION FOR POST MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN ASSOCIATION WITH HEALTH LITERACY.
Health literacy is a problem that affects almost half of the population of the United States of America (Krisberg, K., 2004). Health literacy is associated with lower medication adherence and decreased involvement in the patient’s personal medical care. There is currently a limited amount of research being done on the effects of health literacy in relation to cardiac rehabilitation and post myocardial infarction patients. This research paper seeks to identify the target areas of cardiac rehabilitation that are affected by health literacy including, optimizing pharmacotherapy, and modification of cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, diet, exercise, and weight loss. It is important that the best evidence-based practices are used for providing teaching to post myocardial infarction patients in order to obtain the best outcome for the patient.
Faculty Sponsor: DEB ELLIS RN MSN FNP
Morris, Angela / Croston, Calie. PEDACTIC OBESEITY .
Abstract Healthy eating and nutrition is a rising concern for our children. Children are consuming more calories and are less physically active than children from previous decades. Poor food choices and improper nutrition are contributing to the childhood obesity epidemic. Due to unhealthy eating and improper nutrition children are at risk for many health diseases including heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes. Health promotion in this population is important to prevent obesity and decrease the risks for these diseases. Therefore, it has become a mission for parents, teachers, and healthcare professionals to get involved in promoting healthy eating for our children. The purpose of this paper is to inform and educate about the rising problem of childhood obesity, also to discuss different health promotion programs about healthy eating and proper nutrition.
Faculty Sponsor: CRISTI CAMPBELL DNP, FNP-BC
Prothero, Colbie; Rohaley, Michelle. THE EFFECTS OF PTSD ON VETERAN'S CHILDREN.
Over the last decade, Americans have been involved in conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. As a result, post-traumatic stress disorder has become a major health concern with our veteran’s coming home. Not only does this disorder affect the veteran, but also the family they love. This literature review explores and discusses the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder on parent-child relationships, parenting satisfaction of the veteran, and the behavior of the child. Some symptoms affect the parent-child relationship more than others, as well as the parenting satisfaction of the veteran. Also, the disorder can negatively affect the child’s behavior and performance in daily life. This study explores the literature and applies the use of the ACE Star Model towards these effects.
Faculty Sponsor: JULIE BALDWIN

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Empirical Projects

Bradley, Robert, Clark, Jennifer, England, Shane, Ewing, Tasha, Tucker, Ashley, & Widrig, Abby. DOES THE WAY WEALTH IS EARNED AFFECT CONTRIBUTIONS IN A SOCIAL DILEMMA? .
The present study examines the effect of endowment size and amount of effort given to obtain endowment on contributions to a public good. It is believed that those who have more wealth (points) will be less likely to cooperate and that making the situation competitive will amplify this effect. The hypothesized effect is based on the idea that people decide to give less of something they have worked harder to obtain as perceived by the individual. We will be using a 2 (competitive vs. pure effort) x 2 (high vs. low endowment) factorial design with the dependent variable being the proportion of wealth contributed to a public good. Each participant will complete a visual-spatial performance task in order to earn the amount of points they will use in the public good dilemma. One group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that all parties can earn the highest starting amount, or “pure effort”, and one group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that only one individual can earn the highest starting point total, or “competitive effort”. We will be using Analysis of Variance to analyze the data and determine if the hypothesized interaction occurs.
Faculty Sponsor: KELLY HENRY
Fichter, C., Fish, M., Gossett, T., Matyas, S., Morrill, M., & Peden, K.. SIMILAR IN MEANING VERSUS SIMILAR IN SOUND: THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT ON WORD RECALL.
This research was conducted by a student-research team. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects different types of word lists have on memory (viz., recall). Participants were students enrolled in a Midwestern university. Each participant was shown three different randomized word lists via a computer monitor. There were 12 words per list and three different types of word lists: semantically related, unrelated words, and phonologically related (i.e., rhyming). After presenting each list, participants were asked to recall as many words as possible, that is, out of the 12 on the list. Results revealed that the words in the semantically related list were remembered significantly more than those in the unrelated and phonologically related lists. The findings implicate need for learning strategies and devices to incorporate semantically relevant material.
Faculty Sponsor: ARON GERHART
Jones, Kimberly. LMAO! DO YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN? THE ROLE OF ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMUNICATING EMOTIONS AND HUMOR.
Abbreviations are being used daily to communicate with others, especially in text messages. But do abbreviations affect message interpretation? This study investigates how positive, negative, and neutral abbreviations can affect the interpretation of assertive, directive, and expressive messages. The results show that positive and negative abbreviations tend to have a polarizing effect on message interpretation, e.g., messages with positive abbreviations are interpreted as being more positive than those without. Interestingly, positive and negative abbreviations also cause participants to interpret messages as being more humorous than messages without the abbreviations.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. MARY STILL
Mullins, Ashley. LOL IF YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN: ABBREVIATIONS' EFFECTS ON THE INTERPRETATION OF TEXT MESSAGES.
Abbreviations are used in SMS as shortened versions of words because of character limits, but there have been few investigations of their role in messages. A previous study revealed that emoticons impact message interpretation; we examined whether abbreviations have a similar impact. Participants read messages representing three types of speech acts (assertive, directive, expressive). Half of the messages contained abbreviations of different valence (neutral, positive, negative), the others contained no abbreviations. Results indicate that participants provide fewer literal interpretations when an abbreviation is present; instead they are more likely to make inferences based on the abbreviation.
Faculty Sponsor: DR. MARY STILL
Ratliff,Jacqueline. IS LOL OKAY TO SAY: HOW ABBREVIATIONS AFFECT A MESSAGE'S AMBIGUITY AND POLITENESS .
Abbreviations are common in modern day communication - texting, instant messaging, email - making it easier for the sender to write a message. Abbreviations can convey positive (LOL), negative (SHT), and neutral (BTW) information, but few studies have examined how they affect message interpretation. This experiment examines the effects of abbreviations on the clarity and politeness of three types of messages (assertives, directives, expressives). Results suggest that negative abbreviations decrease the politeness of a message and that abbreviations, surprisingly, can cause a message to be more ambiguous. The effect was strongest when positive abbreviations were used.
Faculty Sponsor: MARY STILL
100 submissions listed.
BIOLOGY51
BUSINESS1
CHEMISTRY11
COMPUTER SCIENCE MATH AND PHYSICS4
CRIMINAL JUSTICE/LEGAL STUDIES/SOCIAL WORK6
ECONOMICS POLITITICAL SCIENCE AND SOCIOLOGY4
MUSIC3
NURSING15
PSYCHOLOGY5
ANALYTICAL PAPER/ANALYSIS11
EMPIRICAL46
HISTORICAL PAPER17
INTERNSHIP2
LITERATURE REVIEW24